As microelectronics features and devices become smaller and more complex, it is critical that engineers and technologists completely understand how components can be damaged during the increasingly complicated fabrication processes required to produce them.
A comprehensive survey of defects that occur in silicon-based metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies, this book also discusses flaws in linear bipolar technologies, silicon carbide-based devices, and gallium arsenide materials and devices. These defects can profoundly affect the yield, performance, long-term reliability, and radiation response of microelectronic devices and integrated circuits (ICs). Organizing the material to build understanding of the problems and provide a quick reference for scientists, engineers and technologists, this text reviews yield- and performance-limiting defects and impurities in the device silicon layer, in the gate insulator, and/or at the critical Si/SiO2 interface. It then examines defects that impact production yield and long-term reliability, including:
Vacancies, interstitials, and impurities (especially hydrogen)
Negative bias temperature instabilities
Defects in ultrathin oxides (SiO2 and silicon oxynitride)
Take A Proactive Approach
The authors condense decades of experience and perspectives of noted experimentalists and theorists to characterize defect properties and their impact on microelectronic devices. They identify the defects, offering solutions to avoid them and methods to detect them. These include the use of 3-D imaging, as well as electrical, analytical, computational, spectroscopic, and state-of-the-art microscopic methods. This book is a valuable look at challenges to come from emerging materials, such as high-K gate dielectrics and high-mobility substrates being developed to replace Si02 as the preferred gate dielectric material, and high-mobility substrates.
The purpose of this textbook is to illustrate rather than describe "using many words" the structure of materials. Even readers who are completely unfamiliar with the topic, but still interested in learning how the atoms are arranged in crystal structures, will find this book immensely useful. Each chapter is accompanied by exercises designed to encourage students to explore the different crystal structures they are learning about. The solutions to the exercises are also provided at the end of the book.
Theoretical methodology is developed using quantum mechanical and non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) techniques to calculate electronic currents and elucidate their transport properties at the atomic scale. The spin Hall effect is explained and its application to the emerging field of spintronics – where an electron’s spin as well as its charge is utilised – is discussed. Topological dynamics and gauge potential are introduced with the relevant mathematics, and their application in nanoelectronic systems is explained. Graphene, one of the most promising carbon-based nanostructures for nanoelectronics, is also explored.Begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronicsEncompasses quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devicesComprehensively introduces topological dynamics and gauge potential with the relevant mathematics, and extensively discusses their application in nanoelectronic systems
Key features:Detailed background material and comprehensive descriptions of the current state-of-the-art research on each topic. Focuses on direct applications to devices that have potential to replace CMOS devices for computing applications such as memory, logic and higher order information processing. Discusses spin-based devices where the spin degree of freedom of charge carriers are exploited for device operation and ultimately information processing. Describes magnet switching methodologies to minimize energy dissipation. Comprehensive bibliographies included for each chapter enabling readers to conduct further research in this field.
Written by internationally recognized experts, this book provides an overview of a rapidly burgeoning field for electronic device engineers, field-based applied physicists, material scientists and nanotechnologists. Furthermore, its clear and concise form equips readers with the basic understanding required to comprehend the present stage of development and to be able to contribute to future development. Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing is also an indispensable resource for students and researchers interested in computer hardware, device physics and circuits design.
• Provides a broad introduction to the principal areas of the physical phenomena in solid materials
• Includes the electronic, mechanical, magnetic and optical properties of all materials
• Explains the behavior of nanomaterials and why they are of importance for future technologies
The authors discuss the generation of table of contents, extraction of highlights, different techniques for audio and video marker recognition, and indexing with low-level features such as color, texture, and shape. Current applications including this summarization and browsing technology are also reviewed. Applications such as event detection in elevator surveillance, highlight extraction from sports video, and image and video database management are considered within the proposed framework. This book presents the latest in research and readers will find their search for knowledge completely satisfied by the breadth of the information covered in this volume.
* Offers the latest in cutting edge research and applications in surveillance and consumer video
* Presentation of a novel unified framework aimed at successfully sifting through the abundance of footage gathered daily at shopping malls, airports, and other commercial facilities
* Concisely written by leading contributors in the signal processing industry with step-by-step instruction in building video ToC and indices