Pathology of Septic Shock

Springer Science & Business Media
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Severe sepsis and septic shock are the most serious compli cations of bacterial infections. Both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria can trigger these extreme inflammatory re sponses and, by so doing, cause substantial morbidity and mortality. In the United States alone, over 400 000 patients suffer from septicaemia each year, and approximately 100 000 of these patients die despite optimal intensive care and modern antimicrobial therapy. These dramatic figures have prompted intensive research to define the bacterial and host factors involved in the septic response. Scientists from many disciplines, including chem istry, physics, biology, medical microbiology, immunology, and pharmacology, have worked closely with clinicians to achieve rapid and profound progress. To translate this newly acquired knowledge into clinical practice, clinical trials have also been performed to evaluate numerous new therapeutic drugs. The disappointing results from these trials have underscored a major lesson, namely, that sepsis constitutes an extremely complex syndrome and that basic and clinical research must be greatly intensified in order to illuminate its molecular mechan isms. At this stage, the editors of the present volume of Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology considered it would be rewarding to compile a volume summarizing our present basic and clinical knowledge on sepsis. Our particular gratitude extends to those international experts who have followed our invitation and elaborated on particular areas of the basic and clinical aspects of this field.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
321
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ISBN
9783642801860
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / General
Medical / Immunology
Medical / Internal Medicine
Medical / Microbiology
Science / Life Sciences / Cell Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Molecular Biology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Human gene therapy holds great promise for the cure of many genetic diseases. In order to achieve such a cure there are two requirements. First, the affected gene must be cloned, its se quence determined and its regulation adequately characterized. Second, a suitable vector for the delivery of a good copy of the affected gene must be available. For a vector to be of use several attributes are highly desirable: these include ability to carry the intact gene (although this may be either the genomic or the cDNA form) in a stable form, ability to introduce the gene into the desired cell type, ability to express the introduced gene in an appropriately regulated manner for an extended period of time, and a lack of toxicity for the recipient. Also of concern is the frequency of cell transformation and, in some cases, the ability to introduce the gene into nondividing stem cells. Sev eral animal viruses have been tested as potential vectors, but none has proven to have all the desired properties described above. For example, retroviruses are difficult to propagate in sufficient titers, do not integrate into nondividing cells, and are of concern because of their oncogenic properties in some hosts and because they integrate at many sites in the genome and, thus, are potentially insertional mutagens. Additionally, genes introduced by retroviral vectors are frequently expressed for relatively short periods of time. A second virus used as a vector in model systems has been adenovirus (Ad).
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