Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Oxford University Press
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This book takes an in depth and hard look at the current status and future direction of treatment predictive markers in Personalized Medicine for the brain from the perspectives of the researchers on the cutting edge and those involved in healthcare implementation. The contents provide a comprehensive text suitable as both a pithy introduction to and a clear summary of the "science to solutions" continuum in this developing field of Personalized Medicine and Integrative Neuroscience. The science includes both measures of genes using whole genome approaches and SNIPS as well as BRAINmarkers of direct brain function such as brain imaging, biophysical changes and objective cognitive and behavioral measurements. Personalized Medicine for Brain Disorders will soon be a reality using the comprehensive quantitative and standardized approaches to genomics, BRAINmarkers and cognitive function. Each chapter provides a review of recent relevant literature; show the solutions achieved through integrative neuroscience and applications in patient care thus providing a practical guide to the reader. The timeliness of this book's content is propitious providing bottom line information to educate practicing clinicians, health care workers and researchers, and also a pathway for undergraduate and graduates interested in further their understanding of and involvement in tailored personal solutions.
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About the author

Dr. Stephen H. Koslow, PhD has been an innovator and creative leader in the fields of psychopharmacology, neuroscience and informatics. He has joined efforts in all these fields by now helping to catalyze Personalized Medicine into a reality. He continues to run his own consulting company, and his efforts in Neuroinformatics, and special interest in the clinical areas of mental illness. He had worked for many years at the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIH) where he had a major leadership role in these same areas. Dr. Evian Gordon is Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney. He is also the founding Director of the Brain Dynamic Centre (BDC), and heads BDC's Integrative Neuroscience Program. He is also the CEO of Brain Resource, a publicly listed biotech Company, which developed out of BDC in 2001, and is now the industry affiliate of BDC. He is a pioneer of 'intergrative neuroscience' and has over 25 years in bringing together complementary human brain imaging technologies. With his experience he has established the first fully standardized international database on the human brain, under the auspices of Brain Resource. He has over 350 peer-reviewed publications and has produced a 14-part television series on models of the human brain.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Oxford University Press
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Published on
Dec 21, 2010
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Pages
360
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ISBN
9780199780846
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / Neurology
Medical / Neuroscience
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Read Aloud
Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Parkinson's disease becomes apparent only after substantial loss (>60%) of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. By this time there has already been widespread neural inclusion formation in the peripheral and central nervous system of patients with the disease, although this has only been recognized more recently. Degeneration in these widespread regions of the peripheral and central nervous system is now known to impact on disease symptoms, progression and treatment over time. This book aims to provide a comprehensive review of these non-dopamine lesions in Parkinson's disease by assessing our current knowledge of their presence and pathophysiology, how they relate to different symptoms and, where relevant, discuss how they may be potentially treated. The book addresses most of the known symptoms that occur in patients with Parkinson's disease. In addition to the classic motor triad, motor speech, eye movements, olfactory dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, pain and sensory abnormalities, sleep disturbances, depression and apathy, dopamine dysregulation syndromes, hallucinations and psychoses, cognitive impairment and dementia, and systemic manifestations are all reviewed. Early selective cell loss in non-dopaminergic regions is highlighted (the glutamate projection neurons of the presupplementary motor cortex and caudal intralaminar thalamus) in addition to the widespread inclusion formation in many regions outside the basal ganglia that characterize the disease. Overall this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the lesions associated with the most common symptoms found in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Behavioral neurology is founded on lesions of cortical gray matter, but recently the contributions of cerebral white matter to cognitive and emotional dysfunction have also attracted attention. The Behavioral Neurology of White Matter surveys this broad and fascinating field from a clinical perspective. Stimulated by recent improvements in neuroimaging, white matter has been carefully studied, and its role in the operations of cognition and emotion clarified by correlations with clinical observations. The relevance of normal and abnormal white matter to behavioral neurology is apparent in every context where this question has been examined: in development, aging, and in a host of diseases, intoxications, and injuries. Since the first edition of this book in 2001, steady advances have been made in understanding the neurobiology of white matter and its clinical significance; this edition provides a comprehensive update on this rapidly expanding field. Every chapter has been extensively rewritten, including a comprehensive revision of the account of the neuropsychiatry of white matter, a particularly challenging area. The syndrome of white matter dementia is discussed in detail, and its refinement with new information is considered along with the proposal of mild cognitive dysfunction as a precursor syndrome in many clinical settings. In addition, two new chapters have been added, one on the emerging area of white matter changes associated with neurodegenerative disorders such Alzheimer's Disease, and another on neurologic aspects of white matter including intriguing new information on white matter plasticity. A unifying theme is the concept of connectivity, as it is clear the white matter forms an essential component of the widespread distributed neural networks by which cognition and emotion are organized. In addition to the microconnectivity within gray matter that subserves information processing, the macroconnectivity of white matter enables information transfer - both are critical for the functions of the human mind.
The #1 New York Times bestselling account of a neurosurgeon's own near-death experience—for readers of 7 Lessons from Heaven.

Thousands of people have had near-death experiences, but scientists have argued that they are impossible. Dr. Eben Alexander was one of those scientists. A highly trained neurosurgeon, Alexander knew that NDEs feel real, but are simply fantasies produced by brains under extreme stress.

Then, Dr. Alexander’s own brain was attacked by a rare illness. The part of the brain that controls thought and emotion—and in essence makes us human—shut down completely. For seven days he lay in a coma. Then, as his doctors considered stopping treatment, Alexander’s eyes popped open. He had come back.

Alexander’s recovery is a medical miracle. But the real miracle of his story lies elsewhere. While his body lay in coma, Alexander journeyed beyond this world and encountered an angelic being who guided him into the deepest realms of super-physical existence. There he met, and spoke with, the Divine source of the universe itself.

Alexander’s story is not a fantasy. Before he underwent his journey, he could not reconcile his knowledge of neuroscience with any belief in heaven, God, or the soul. Today Alexander is a doctor who believes that true health can be achieved only when we realize that God and the soul are real and that death is not the end of personal existence but only a transition.

This story would be remarkable no matter who it happened to. That it happened to Dr. Alexander makes it revolutionary. No scientist or person of faith will be able to ignore it. Reading it will change your life.
Have you ever seen something that wasn’t really there? Heard someone call your name in an empty house? Sensed someone following you and turned around to find nothing?

Hallucinations don’t belong wholly to the insane. Much more commonly, they are linked to sensory deprivation, intoxication, illness, or injury. People with migraines may see shimmering arcs of light or tiny, Lilliputian figures of animals and people. People with failing eyesight, paradoxically, may become immersed in a hallucinatory visual world. Hallucinations can be brought on by a simple fever or even the act of waking or falling asleep, when people have visions ranging from luminous blobs of color to beautifully detailed faces or terrifying ogres. Those who are bereaved may receive comforting “visits” from the departed. In some conditions, hallucinations can lead to religious epiphanies or even the feeling of leaving one’s own body.

Humans have always sought such life-changing visions, and for thousands of years have used hallucinogenic compounds to achieve them. As a young doctor in California in the 1960s, Oliver Sacks had both a personal and a professional interest in psychedelics. These, along with his early migraine experiences, launched a lifelong investigation into the varieties of hallucinatory experience.

Here, with his usual elegance, curiosity, and compassion, Dr. Sacks weaves together stories of his patients and of his own mind-altering experiences to illuminate what hallucinations tell us about the organization and structure of our brains, how they have influenced every culture’s folklore and art, and why the potential for hallucination is present in us all, a vital part of the human condition. 
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