One of the most powerful and significant authors in all modern fiction, Fyodor Dostoevsky was the son of a harsh and domineering army surgeon who was murdered by his own serfs (slaves), an event that was extremely important in shaping Dostoevsky's view of social and economic issues. He studied to be an engineer and began work as a draftsman. However, his first novel, Poor Folk (1846), was so well received that he abandoned engineering for writing. In 1849, Dostoevsky was arrested for being a part of a revolutionary group that owned an illegal printing press. He was sentenced to be executed, but the sentence was changed at the last minute, and he was sent to a prison camp in Siberia instead. By the time he was released in 1854, he had become a devout believer in both Christianity and Russia - although not in its ruler, the Czar. During the 1860's, Dostoevsky's personal life was in constant turmoil as the result of financial problems, a gambling addiction, and the deaths of his wife and brother. His second marriage in 1887 provided him with a stable home life and personal contentment, and during the years that followed he produced his great novels: Crime and Punishment (1886), the story of Rodya Raskolnikov, who kills two old women in the belief that he is beyond the bounds of good and evil; The Idiots (1868), the story of an epileptic who tragically affects the lives of those around him; The Possessed (1872), the story of the effect of revolutionary thought on the members of one Russian community; A Raw Youth (1875), which focuses on the disintegration and decay of family relationships and life; and The Brothers Karamazov (1880), which centers on the murder of Fyodor Karamazov and the effect the murder has on each of his four sons. These works have placed Dostoevsky in the front rank of the world's great novelists. Dostoevsky was an innovator, bringing new depth and meaning to the psychological novel and combining realism and philosophical speculation in his complex studies of the human condition.
„Cartea pe care ar trebui s-o citeasca oricine pentru a intelege natura si semnificatia leninismului ramane romanul Demonii al lui Dostoievski.“
„Dostoievski ne este indispensabil: satira lui asemenea celei a lui Jonathan Swift denunta egoismul cruzimea ipocriziile noastre si mai presus de orice aceasta infirmitate care este constiinta de sine. Acest Shakespeare al romancierilor isi inzestreaza personajele cu o intensitate a trairii pe care doar operele Marelui Will au atins-o si in plus le face sa poarte povara rusinii un lucru pe care Shakespeare nu a fost capabil sa-l realizeze.“
In romanul Anna Karenina (1873-1877) axat pe tragedia unei femei aflate sub imperiul distructiv al unei pasiuni adulterine Tolstoi divulga ipocrizia inaltei societati zugraveste descompunerea modului de viata patriarhal distrugerea institutiei familiei. Receptarii lumii de catre o constiinta individuala si rationalista scriitorul ii opune valoarea in sine a vietii in infinitul in nestatornicia haotica si in concretetea ei reala manifestindu-se drept un „criptovazator al trupului“ (termenul ii apartine lui Dmitri Merejkovski).