Communication is the main way of defusing uncertainties. Unfortunately, communication discipline itself is mined by uncertainties. We can talk about onto-epistemological uncertainties and pragmatic uncertainties of communication, about theoretical and practical uncertainties, and about primary and secondary uncertainties of communication. Uncertainties regarding the object of communication as autonomous discipline, the research methods of communication, the sources, paradigms and models of communication represent theoretical, onto-epistemological uncertainties. Pragmatic uncertainties include uncertainties in communication processes; they have a practical character. Pragmatic uncertainties are those that lead to communication failure and they consist in minor obstacles or insurmountable barriers in concrete communication. (Florentin Smarandache & Stefan Vladutescu)
The book has 16 chapters written by the following authors and co-authors from USA, England, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu, Mirela Teodorescu, Dan S. Stoica, Daniela Gifu, Calin Andrei, Ioan Constantin Dima, Mariana Man, Janusz Grabara, Paula Bajdor, Jim O'Brien, Andrzej Rabsztyn, Anabella-Maria Tarnovan, Adrian Nicolescu, Alina Tenescu, Nicusor Minculete, Vladimir Modrak, Sorin Mihai Radu, Alice Ionescu, Anca Diana Bibiri, Lucian Sacalean, Mircea Munteanu, Roxana Criu, Bogdan Constantin Neculau, Marin Dramnescu, MihaelaGabriela Paun, and Loredana Speriatu.
The purpose of writing this book is to suggest some improved estimators
using auxiliary information in sampling schemes like simple random sampling,
systematic sampling and stratified random sampling.
This volume is a collection of five papers, written by nine co-authors
(listed in the order of the papers): Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Manoj Kr.
Chaudhary, Cem Kadilar, Prayas Sharma, Florentin Smarandache, Anil
Prajapati, Hemant Verma, and Viplav Kr. Singh.
In first paper dual to ratio-cum-product estimator is suggested and its
properties are studied. In second paper an exponential ratio-product type
estimator in stratified random sampling is proposed and its properties are
studied under second order approximation. In third paper some estimators are
proposed in two-phase sampling and their properties are studied in the
presence of non-response.
In fourth chapter a family of median based estimator is proposed in
simple random sampling. In fifth paper some difference type estimators are
suggested in simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and their
properties are studied in presence of measurement error.
Our thesis is that communication has several sources. Some may be considered as main sources or constitutive sources from which communication springs, and others may be considered as secondary or complementary sources of communication. We can thus acknowledge eight main sources of communication: rhetoric, persuasion, psychology, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, linguistics and political science.
Rhetoric is the first and oldest discipline which studied certain communication phenomena; rhetoric has outlined a proto-object of communication. Sociology is the most powerful source of
communication methodology: sociology has supplied most of the theories and methods that have led to the discipline of communication growing autonomously. We assert that secondary sources of communication are: philosophy, ethics, pragmatics, mathematics, cybernetics and ecology.
[Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu]
The book has 15 chapters written by the following authors and co-authors from USA, England, China, Poland, Serbia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, and Romania: Florentin Smarandache, Ştefan Vlăduţescu, Jim O’Brien, Svetislav Paunovic, Mariana Man, Zhaoxun Song, Dandan Shan, Maria Nowicka-Skowron, Sorin Mihai Radu, Janusz Grabara, Ioan Cosmescu, Adrian Nicolescu, Krasimira Dimitrova, Alina Țenescu, Sebastian Kot, Beata Ślusarczyk, Maria Măcriș, Iwona Grabara, Piotr Pachura, Mircea Bunaciu, Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Mircea Duică, Odette Arhip, Vlad Roșca, and Vladimir-Aurelian Enăchescu.
In this book the authors introduce the new notions of subset polynomial semirings and subset matrix semirings. Solving subset polynomial equations is an interesting exercise.
Open problems about the solution set of subset polynomials are proposed.
Using formal models to discuss object extension and the possibility of change, as well as the rules and methods for innovation, Extenics is applied to solving contradictory problems and has become the basic theory, method and instrument to achieve this goal. In the 30 years since the foundation of Extenics, researchers have built relatively complete theoretical systems —‘extension theory’, studied formal and modeling innovation methods —‘extension innovation methods’, and launched the applications in various fields such as information, design, automation and management etc. —‘extension engineering’. Extension theory, the extension innovation method and extension engineering jointly constitute the new discipline—Extenics. At the same time, the practical activities of engineering technology and management promote the integration of various innovation methods such as TRIZ and brainstorming etc.
This book collects together, from scholars in various fields, the research achievements in Extenics and innovation methods, in order to facilitate and promote the development of Extenics and the various innovation theories and methods, as well as to improve its innovative capacity in academic and business circles.