The Neuropathology of HIV Infection

Springer Science & Business Media
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A multi-author approach is taken in this book to give a thorough view of the neuropathology of AIDS. The authors have exhaustively reviewed all the available data in order to draw a clear and complete picture of the present status. The broad approach makes the reader aware that the neurological disease is part of a process involving the patients in their entirety.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
271
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ISBN
9781447119579
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / Microbiology
Medical / Neurology
Medical / Neuroscience
Medical / Pathology
Science / Life Sciences / Cell Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
Science / Life Sciences / Molecular Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Neuroscience
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Dendritic cells play the most vital part in inducing anti-viral immune responses in HIV and AIDS among many other viruses. Research on dendritic cells (DCs) is emerging as a fundamental aspect for the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of viral diseases as well as for the progress on the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

This volume focuses on the role of DCs in the pathogenesis and immunity of HIV-1 infection. It has recently been clarified that DCs are important targets and reservoirs of HIV and may play an important role in virus spreading to T cells. Interestingly, HIV can exploit many of the cellular processes responsible for the generation and regulation of the adaptive immune responses to gain access to its main target cells, i.e. the CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, the central role of DCs in stimulating T cell activation not only provides a route for viral transmission, but also represents a vulnerable point at which HIV-1 can interfere with the initiation of primary T cell immunity.

Recent studies have revealed that several HIV proteins can profoundly influence the phenotype and functions of DCs even in the absence of a productive infection, often resulting in an abnormal immune response. While this knowledge has resulted in the identification of some major mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, the recent progress on DC biology has opened perspectives in the research on new adjuvants (selectively acting on DCs) and on novel strategies for the in vivo targeting of antigens to DCs, which appear to be highly relevant for the development of HIV vaccines. Of note, defects in the number and functions of DCs have been observed in the course of HIV infection and during disease progression, thus suggesting that DCs play an important role in the immune control of viral replication and virus-induced dysfunctions. The development of therapeutic vaccination strategies to be combined with HAART is thought as an important step for an effective control of HIV infection in patients. In this context, the use of autologous DCs may represent an attracting strategy. Notably, DCs are now regarded as a valuable approach for the development of cancer vaccines and several clinical trials have explored the efficacy of different DC preparations as cellular adjuvants in inducing a potentially protective immune response. Recent data in animal models provide the background for the clinical testing of DC-based vaccines in HIV-1-infected patients. Now that we start to understand the complex interactions between HIV and DCs in the pathogenesis of AIDS and we are learning how to prepare potentially effective DCs from lessons on cancer vaccines, we may reasonably assume that DC-based therapeutic vaccines can represent a topic of increasing interest in protocols of clinical immunotherapy of HIV-1-infected patients.

“Fun…and full of smart science. Fans of CSI—the real kind—will want to read it” (The Washington Post): A young forensic pathologist’s “rookie season” as a NYC medical examiner, and the hair-raising cases that shaped her as a physician and human being.

Just two months before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Dr. Judy Melinek began her training as a New York City forensic pathologist. While her husband and their toddler held down the home front, Judy threw herself into the fascinating world of death investigation—performing autopsies, investigating death scenes, counseling grieving relatives. Working Stiff chronicles Judy’s two years of training, taking readers behind the police tape of some of the most harrowing deaths in the Big Apple, including a firsthand account of the events of September 11, the subsequent anthrax bio-terrorism attack, and the disastrous crash of American Airlines Flight 587.

An unvarnished portrait of the daily life of medical examiners—complete with grisly anecdotes, chilling crime scenes, and a welcome dose of gallows humor—Working Stiff offers a glimpse into the daily life of one of America’s most arduous professions, and the unexpected challenges of shuttling between the domains of the living and the dead. The body never lies—and through the murders, accidents, and suicides that land on her table, Dr. Melinek lays bare the truth behind the glamorized depictions of autopsy work on television to reveal the secret story of the real morgue. “Haunting and illuminating...the stories from her average workdays…transfix the reader with their demonstration that medical science can diagnose and console long after the heartbeat stops” (The New York Times).
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