This volume focuses on the role of DCs in the pathogenesis and immunity of HIV-1 infection. It has recently been clarified that DCs are important targets and reservoirs of HIV and may play an important role in virus spreading to T cells. Interestingly, HIV can exploit many of the cellular processes responsible for the generation and regulation of the adaptive immune responses to gain access to its main target cells, i.e. the CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, the central role of DCs in stimulating T cell activation not only provides a route for viral transmission, but also represents a vulnerable point at which HIV-1 can interfere with the initiation of primary T cell immunity.
Recent studies have revealed that several HIV proteins can profoundly influence the phenotype and functions of DCs even in the absence of a productive infection, often resulting in an abnormal immune response. While this knowledge has resulted in the identification of some major mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, the recent progress on DC biology has opened perspectives in the research on new adjuvants (selectively acting on DCs) and on novel strategies for the in vivo targeting of antigens to DCs, which appear to be highly relevant for the development of HIV vaccines. Of note, defects in the number and functions of DCs have been observed in the course of HIV infection and during disease progression, thus suggesting that DCs play an important role in the immune control of viral replication and virus-induced dysfunctions. The development of therapeutic vaccination strategies to be combined with HAART is thought as an important step for an effective control of HIV infection in patients. In this context, the use of autologous DCs may represent an attracting strategy. Notably, DCs are now regarded as a valuable approach for the development of cancer vaccines and several clinical trials have explored the efficacy of different DC preparations as cellular adjuvants in inducing a potentially protective immune response. Recent data in animal models provide the background for the clinical testing of DC-based vaccines in HIV-1-infected patients. Now that we start to understand the complex interactions between HIV and DCs in the pathogenesis of AIDS and we are learning how to prepare potentially effective DCs from lessons on cancer vaccines, we may reasonably assume that DC-based therapeutic vaccines can represent a topic of increasing interest in protocols of clinical immunotherapy of HIV-1-infected patients.
To this end, specific topics have been selected and are reviewed by international experts within the basic science/medical community. This book encourages investigation in the most controversial areas and fosters interaction between clinicians and basic scientists. The book also increases awareness about differences in disease progression among different parts of the world as well as selected patient populations, which may also help identifying novel therapeutic strategies.
Neurovirology has been significantly bolstered by modern technologies such as PCR and MRI with direct impact on isolating viruses and advancing therapeutics based on molecular medicine. These advances are particularly important today with the introduction of emerging and re-emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere.Detailed coverage of neurovirology from the basic science to clinical presentationCovers advances in neurovirology via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and MRI technologyCovers emerging and re-emerging diseases including HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis, and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere
Clinicians will gain a greater understanding of the complex mechanisms of the disease. Beginning with a basic introduction to HIV infections and Neuro-AIDS, practitioners will find useful data on advances in molecular biology, neuroepidemiology, neuroimaging, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, as well as information on the development of therapeutic strategies appropriate for the disorder, including groundbreaking retroviral therapies.
In addition, the socioeconomic and political constraints that hinder treatment and disease management in developing parts of the world are presented.* A comprehensive understanding of HIV/AIDS and neuro-AIDS, and the progression of the scientific community’s understanding of the disease
Every animal, whether human, squid, or wasp, is home to millions of bacteria and other microbes. Ed Yong, whose humor is as evident as his erudition, prompts us to look at ourselves and our animal companions in a new light—less as individuals and more as the interconnected, interdependent multitudes we assuredly are.
The microbes in our bodies are part of our immune systems and protect us from disease. In the deep oceans, mysterious creatures without mouths or guts depend on microbes for all their energy. Bacteria provide squid with invisibility cloaks, help beetles to bring down forests, and allow worms to cause diseases that afflict millions of people.
Many people think of microbes as germs to be eradicated, but those that live with us—the microbiome—build our bodies, protect our health, shape our identities, and grant us incredible abilities. In this astonishing book, Ed Yong takes us on a grand tour through our microbial partners, and introduces us to the scientists on the front lines of discovery. It will change both our view of nature and our sense of where we belong in it.