Transport institutions and politics in the UK and Germany: Who matters in making transport policy decisions?

GRIN Verlag
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Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 2,0 (B), Aston University (School of Applied Science), course: Transport Institutions and Politics, 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The main aspect of this work is a report on who matters in making decisions on transport projects and policies. The roles of both individuals and groups involved in the decision making process on transport projects and transport policies will be examined. In this context, transport projects are for example new infrastructure projects, whereas transport policies refer to the regulation and pricing of transport. First, the British system of decision making in transport is described, followed by a brief description of the German system and a comparison of both systems. Then the influence of pressure groups is examined and some examples of successful pressure group interference are presented. Two case studies examine the decision making process in practice and illustrate the variety of involved parties. Finally, some major conclusions are drawn, reflecting the author’s personal opinion.
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GRIN Verlag
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Nov 12, 2003
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Business & Economics / Economics / General
Political Science / Public Policy / Economic Policy
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Brilliant and engagingly written, Why Nations Fail answers the question that has stumped the experts for centuries: Why are some nations rich and others poor, divided by wealth and poverty, health and sickness, food and famine?

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First published by the University of Chicago Press on September 18, 1944, The Road to Serfdom garnered immediate, widespread attention. The first printing of 2,000 copies was exhausted instantly, and within six months more than 30,000 books were sold. In April 1945, Reader’s Digest published a condensed version of the book, and soon thereafter the Book-of-the-Month Club distributed this edition to more than 600,000 readers. A perennial best seller, the book has sold 400,000 copies in the United States alone and has been translated into more than twenty languages, along the way becoming one of the most important and influential books of the century.

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The most important book yet from the author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, a brilliant explanation of why the climate crisis challenges us to abandon the core “free market” ideology of our time, restructure the global economy, and remake our political systems.

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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich BWL - Marketing, Unternehmenskommunikation, CRM, Marktforschung, Social Media, Note: voraussichtlich 2,0, Fachhochschule Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven; Standort Elsfleth (Fachbereich Seefahrt), Veranstaltung: Marketing / Vertrieb 2, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Preispolitik im Personenverkehr der Deutschen Bahn AG hat bereits häufiger für viel Gesprächsstoff gesorgt. Einer ersten Preisreform im Dezember 2002 folgte im August 2003 eine Korrektur, die vielfach als eine Art Rückkehr zum ursprünglichen Preissystem gesehen wurde. In dieser Arbeit soll untersucht werden, welche Ziele die Deutsche Bahn AG mit der Preisreform verfolgte und wie es zum Scheitern dieser Preisreform kam. Sämtliche Ausführungen dieser Arbeit beziehen sich ausschließlich auf den Personenverkehr der Deutschen Bahn AG. In Kapitel 2.1 wird zunächst das alte Preissystem vor der Reform dargestellt. Es werden die Ursachen für die Abschaffung des alten Systems aufgezählt und schließlich in Kapitel 2.3 die Ziele der Preisreform untersucht. In Kapitel 3 werden allgemeine preispolitische Strategien und Konzepte vorgestellt, unter besonderer Beachtung des Dienstleistungsbereichs. Allgemeine Besonderheiten der Preispolitik im Monopol beziehungsweise im Oligopol werden in Kapitel 3.3 genauer erläutert. Auf diese allgemeinen Erkenntnisse wird dann in den übrigen Kapiteln zurückgegriffen. Im vierten Kapitel wird das Preissystem vom 15. Dezember 2002 untersucht. Zunächst werden die entscheidenden Änderungen in der Preispolitik aufgezählt. Die vom Bahnvorstand erwarteten Auswirkungen des neuen Systems sind in Kapitel 4.2 zu finden, gefolgt von einer Analyse der Ursachen für das Scheitern des Preissystems. Kapitel 5 widmet sich der zweiten Preisreform. Diese Korrektur der ersten Reform trat am 1. August 2003 in Kraft. Nach einer Untersuchung der Ursachen für die zweite Preisreform wird dann deren Umsetzung beschrieben. Die Auswirkungen des neuen Preissystems für die Bahn werden in Kapitel 5.3 untersucht. Abschließend folgt eine Bewertung der Preispolitik der Deutschen Bahn AG. Insbesondere die Erfolgschancen und die bisherigen Auswirkungen des neuen Preissystems werden einer kritischen Bewertung unterzogen. In Kapitel 6.2 wird noch einmal auf die Besonderheiten des Marktumfeldes der Bahn eingegangen, welche weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die preispolitischen Entscheidungen der Bahn haben.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2002 im Fachbereich BWL - Handel und Distribution, Note: 2,3, Fachhochschule Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven; Standort Elsfleth (Fachbereich Seefahrt), Veranstaltung: Hafenmanagement 2, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Viele Güter, vor allem Lebensmittel wie Obst und Milchprodukte, erfordern einen Transport unter bestimmten externen Bedingungen, insbesondere Kühlung. Hauptherkunftsregionen der Kühlgüter sind Lateinamerika, Südamerika, der Mittelmeerraum, Australien und Neuseeland. Wichtige Importmärkte sind Europa, Fernost und Nordamerika. Für die Nachfrage nach Kühlguttonnage gibt es eine Vielzahl von Bestimmungsgründen. Über die Nachfrage nach Kühlgütern ist indirekt eine Anhängigkeit von der Bevölkerungsentwicklung, dem verfügbaren Einkommen und Wechselkursen gegeben. Das Angebot in der Kühlgutschifffahrt wird von konventionellen Reeferschiffen und Containerschiffen mit Reefercontainern bereitgestellt. In letzter zeit ist der Reefermarkt durch den Konkurrenzkampf zwischen diesen Anbietern gekennzeichnet. Für beide Arten des Transports gibt es bestimmende Faktoren. So ist der Container bei kleinen Ladungsvolumina und heterogener Ladung vorzuziehen, wohingegen das Vollreeferschiff bei großen Ladungsaufkommen und homogener Ladung bevorzugt wird. Insgesamt steigt der Marktanteil der Container jedoch kontinuierlich an. Terminals im Kühlgutbereich müssen hohen Anforderungen gerecht werden. Insbesondere die Aufrechterhaltung der Kühlkette während des gesamten Transportweges ist ein kritischer Punkt. Infra- und Suprastruktur eines Kühlgutterminals müssen den besonderen Eigenschaften der Kühlgüter, insbesondere ihrer Zeitsensibilität, Rechnung tragen. Eine Technik, die im Lagerwesen schon seit längerem verwendet wird und nun auch im Transport von Kühlgütern eingesetzt wird, ist die kontrollierte Atmosphäre. Dabei wird die Luftzusammensetzung geändert, um die Fruchtatmung zu reduzieren und damit den Reifeprozess zu verlangsamen. Somit sind längere Transitzeiten bei besserer Fruchtqualität möglich. Europa ist der wichtigste Importmarkt für Kühlgüter. Der intraeuropäische Handel wird vom Fischhandel dominiert. Dieser ist auch für die Kühlgutschifffahrt in Nordeuropa der entscheidende Faktor. Obwohl ein großer Teil der Transporte durch die Fischereiflotte selbst durchgeführt wird, so ist dennoch der Transport von Frost- oder Frischfisch ein wichtiges Marktsegment im nordeuropäischen Reefermarkt. Als wichtige Häfen im nordeuropäischen Fischhandel lassen sich Cuxhaven und Esbjerg in Dänemark herausstellen.
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