Recent Developments in Gauge Theories

Nato Science Series B

Book 59
Springer Science & Business Media
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Almost all theories of fundamental interactions are nowadays based on the gauge concept. Starting with the historical example of quantum electrodynamics, we have been led to the successful unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, and finally to a non abelian gauge theory of strong interactions with the notion of permanently confined quarks. The. early theoretical work on gauge theories was devoted to proofs of renormalizability, investigation of short distance behaviour, the discovery of asymptotic freedom, etc . . , aspects which were accessible to tools extrapolated from renormalised perturbation theory. The second phase of the subject is concerned with the problem of quark confinement which necessitates a non-perturbative understanding of gauge theories. This phase has so far been marked by the introduc tion of ideas from geometry, topology and statistical mechanics in particular the theory of phase transitions. The 1979 Cargese Institute on "Recent Developments on Gauge Theories" was devoted to a thorough discussion of these non-perturbative, global aspects of non-abelian gauge theories. In the lectures and seminars reproduced in this volume the reader wilf find detailed reports on most of the important developments of recent times on non perturbative gauge fields by some of the leading experts and innovators in this field. Aside from lectures on gauge fields proper, there were lectures on gauge field concepts in condensed matter physics and lectures by mathematicians on global aspects of the calculus of variations, its relation to geometry and topology, and related topics.
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Springer Science & Business Media
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Mar 9, 2013
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Science / Physics / Atomic & Molecular
Science / Physics / Electricity
Science / Physics / Nuclear
Science / Physics / Optics & Light
Science / Physics / Quantum Theory
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This book presents detailed discussions of several of the large scale applications of superconductivity which will have major economic impact on technical developments in the industrial world. The world wide concern with energy problems makes this work particularly timely. Some of the large scale devices and systems such as superconducting generators, motors, power transmission, large magnets, high speed ground transportation and industrial processing clearly speak directly to improved efficiencies of generation and utilization of energy. The articles treat each subject in depth. The text is suitable for advanced undergradu ate or graduate engineering or applied science courses. The text should also be of immediate use to practicing engineers and scientists in applied superconductivity. The unique summaries of national efforts in applied superconductivity will also be valuable to industrial and government plan ners. The book is based on a NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled, "Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity and Magnetism" which was held September 5 to 14 in the Hotel des Alpes, Entreves, Valle d'Aosta, Northern Italy. This Study Institute represented a departure from other NA TO Advanced Study Institutes in that it was very strongly directed toward engineering applications rather than purely scientifically oriented interests. The planning of this Institute developed over several years and would not have been possible without continued interest by several key NATO Scientific Mfairs Division scientists. It started when one of us (S. F. ) met with Dr. H.
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Today physicists and mathematicians throughout the world are feverishly working on one of the most ambitious theories ever proposed: superstring theory. String theory, as it is often called, is the key to the Unified Field Theory that eluded Einstein for more than thirty years. Finally, the century-old antagonism between the large and the small-General Relativity and Quantum Theory-is resolved. String theory proclaims that all of the wondrous happenings in the universe, from the frantic dancing of subatomic quarks to the majestic swirling of heavenly galaxies, are reflections of one grand physical principle and manifestations of one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the size of an atom. In this brilliantly articulated and refreshingly clear book, Greene relates the scientific story and the human struggle behind twentieth-century physics' search for a theory of everything.

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The 1979 Cargese Summer Institute on Quarks and Leptons was organized by the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (M. LEVY and J.-L. BASDEVANT), CERN (M. JACOB), the Universite Catholi~ue de Louvain (D. SPEISER and J. WEYERS), and the Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (R. GASTMANS), who, like in 1975 and 1977, had joined their efforts and worked in common. It was the 20th Summer Institute held at Cargese and the 5th one organized by the two institutes of theoretical physics at Leuven and Louvain-la Neuve. This time, the school was dominated by the impressive advances which were made in the field of perturbative ~uantum chromodyna mics and its applications to high energy phenomena involving strongly interacting particles. The unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions being well established, a new picture in particle physics emerges wherein a possible unification of weak, electromagnetic, and strong forces is put forward. Its conse~uences were also discussed in detail. Finally, to complete the picture of the present status of high energy physics, experi mentalists from the major laboratories around the world reported on the latest developments in electron-positron scattering, neutrino induced reactions, and hadron collisions. We owe many thanks to all those who have made this Summer Institute possible! Thanks are due to the Scientific Committee of NATO and its President for a generous grant and especially to the head of the Scientific Affairs Division, Dr. M. DI LULLO for his constant help and encouragements.
This book presents an account of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Radiationless Processes," held in Erice, Italy, from November 18 to December 1, 1979. This meeting was organized by the International School of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The objective of the Institute was to formulate a comprehensive treatment of the various processes by which molecules and crystals in excited electronic levels relax nonradiatively to the ground level. A total of 83 participants came from 62 laboratories and 22 nations (Australia, Belgium, Brasil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, F. R. Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and U.S.S.R.). The secretaries of the Institute were: Velda Goldberg for the scientific aspects and Antonino La Francesca for the administrative aspects of the meeting. Eleven series of lectures for a total of 36 hours were given. Nine "long" seminars and 7 "short" seminars were also presented. In addition, two informal seminars and 2 round-table discussions were held. After an introductory overview of the theory of radiation1ess processes, the Institute dealt firstly with the interaction of electrons with the distribution of vibrational modes in simple molecules, then with the increasingly complex situation found in large lsolated molecules, gnd finally with the coupling of excited electrons with the continuous phonon distribution in insulating solids.
The importance of gauge theory for elementary particle physics is by now firmly established. Recent experiments have yielded con vincing evidence for the existence of intermediate bosons, the carriers of the electroweak gauge force, as well as for the presence of gluons, the carriers of the strong gauge force, in hadronic inter actions. For the gauge theory of strong interactions, however, a number of important theoretical problems remain to be definitely resolved. They include the quark confinement problem, the quantita tive study of the hadron mass spectrum as well as the role of topo logy in quantum gauge field theory. These problems require for their solution the development and application of non-perturbative methods in quantum gauge field theory. These problems, and their non-pertur bative analysis, formed the central interest of the 1983 Cargese summer institute on "Progress in Gauge Field Theory. " In this sense it was a natural sequel to the 1919 Cargese summer institute on "Recent Developments in Gauge Theories. " Lattice gauge theory provides a systematic framework for the investigation of non-perturbative quantum effects. Accordingly, a large number of lectures dealt with lattice gauge theory. Following a systematic introduction to the subject, the renormalization group method was developed both as a rigorous tool for fundamental questions, and in the block-spin formulation, the computations by Monte Carlo programs. A detailed analysis was presented of the problems encountered in computer simulations. Results obtained by this method on the mass spectrum were reviewed.
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