This material has been developed by researchers of the enviroSPACE lab. at the University of Geneva (http://www.unige.ch/envirospace), Laboratory of Earth and Space Science Infor- matics at the Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (IIA) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) (http://www.essi-lab.eu) and the GRID-Geneva office of the United Na- tions Environment Programme (http://www.grid.unep.ch).
The probes are invaluable formative assesment tools to use before you begin teaching a topic or unit. The detailed teacher materials that accompany each probe review science content, give connections to National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks; present developmental considerations; summarize relevant research on learning; and suggest instructional approaches for elementary, middle, and high school students. Other books may discuss students' general misconceptions about scientific thinking about scientific ideas. Only this one provides probes, single, reproducible sheets, you can use to determine students' thinking about, for example, photosynthesis, moon phases, conservation of matter, reflections, chemical change, and cells. Each probe has been field-tested with hundreds of students across multiple grade levels, so they're proven effective for helping your students reexamine and further develop their understanding of science concepts.
The number of African Americans and Latino/as receiving undergraduate and advanced degrees in computer science is disproportionately low, according to recent surveys. And relatively few African American and Latino/a high school students receive the kind of institutional encouragement, educational opportunities, and preparation needed for them to choose computer science as a field of study and profession. In Stuck in the Shallow End, Jane Margolis looks at the daily experiences of students and teachers in three Los Angeles public high schools: an overcrowded urban high school, a math and science magnet school, and a well-funded school in an affluent neighborhood. She finds an insidious “virtual segregation” that maintains inequality. Two of the three schools studied offer only low-level, how-to (keyboarding, cutting and pasting) introductory computing classes. The third and wealthiest school offers advanced courses, but very few students of color enroll in them. The race gap in computer science, Margolis finds, is one example of the way students of color are denied a wide range of occupational and educational futures. Margolis traces the interplay of school structures (such factors as course offerings and student-to-counselor ratios) and belief systems—including teachers' assumptions about their students and students' assumptions about themselves. Stuck in the Shallow End is a story of how inequality is reproduced in America—and how students and teachers, given the necessary tools, can change the system.