An interpretation of " Hawk Roosting" (by Ted Hughes)

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,0 (A), University of Hamburg (FB Anglistics), course: Seminar 1b: The Language of Poetry and Advertising, language: English, abstract: Writing a poem is a highly complex process which at the same time enables and forces the writer to express his ideas in (mostly) only a few words or sentences. It is thus very important to use a dense language which very carefully picks from a potentially broad semantic range. The aim of this selecting process must be not only to transmit isolated meanings of words but also to create an atmosphere which somehow enables the reader to reconstruct the feelings the author had when he1 wrote his poem. In order to do so there are different possibilities: It is possible to make use of the connotations words possess and which add additional meaning to their denotations. Moreover it is also a well used means to embed different rhetoric devises in a text in order to intensify its density and to increase its emotionality. This can be done on the basis of two different levels: Firstly there are rhetoric figures on a syntactic level. Examples of that kind relate to the position of words (inversion, parallelism...), the phenomenon of repetition (anaphors, reduplicatio anadiplosis...) or the quantity of expressions (amplifications, antithesis...). Secondly there are the so- called tropes which represent rhetoric devises on a semantic level. The word “tropes” originates in Greek and designs an “unusual expression”. Tropes do therefore occur when one expression is replaced by another which derives from a different (semantic) context. Examples of the second kind are metaphors, allegories and irony. In the following interpretation of the poem “Hawk Roosting” by Ted Hughes I am going to refer to some of the rhetoric devises which I have just presented. In doing so I am going to prove that this poem is a perfect example of a language which is at the same time emotive and descriptive and therefore combines two most interesting and fascinating aspects of poetry. As I am going to show the author does not use many different stylistic devices but rather concentrates on one single one. Nevertheless, this one is sufficiently enough, well chosen and serves its purpose. 1 For reasons of space I am only going to use masculine forms in this essay.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Aug 27, 2003
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Pages
7
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ISBN
9783638213554
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / General
Literary Criticism / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3 (A), University of Hamburg (Anglistics Seminar), course: Seminar II: Cognitive English Grammar, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: For centuries, the study of metonymy and metaphor has been regarded purely a matter of style and rhetoric. In addition to that, research into metonymic relationship traditionally has been put only second to the phenomenon of metaphor. However, things have changed a little over the past decades. Especially after Lakoff/ Johnson had published their influential work on metaphor and conceptualization (“Metaphors we live by”, 1980) research into cognitive aspects of language gained more ground in linguistics. Deeper insight into the way we structure our perception of the world has led to the conclusion that both, metaphor and metonymy, must be regarded as cognitive phenomena. As such they illustrate the fact that “fundamental cognitive abilities and experientially derived cognitive models have direct and pervasive linguistic manifestations” (Langacker, 1993, p.1) and, conversely, that by ways of examining language we can analyse important aspects of the way our mind is structured. As for metonymy, the relationship between thought and language is characterised by the fact that “an expression that normally designs one entity is used instead to designate another, associated entity” (Langacker, 1993, p. 29). Crucial questions which spring from this assumption are: How and why do we understand metonymies? Which principles are involved in the process of creating and understanding metonymic expressions and why can we rely on them?1 In the following, I will answer these questions on the basis of Ronald W. Langacker ́s essay “Reference-point Construction” (Langacker, 1993). I will apply Langacker ́s theoretical notions to a rather specific area of language: telic verbs. By way of referring to a selection of telic verbs I will argue that the understanding of telic verbs relies on metonymy- a metonymy that is not included in the lists of metonymies developed by some well-known linguists (cf.: Fass, 1997, 461-469). The contents of my term paper is structured in three parts: First of all, I am going to exemplify Langacker ́s theory about metonymic expressions. In a second step I will point out important characteristics of telic verbs. Finally, I will exemplify how the process of understanding telic verbs can be explained in terms of Langacker ́s theory.
Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,7 (A-), University of Hamburg (Anglistics Seminar), course: Seminar 1b, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Short Story „On Saturday Afternoon“ by Alan Sillitoe is a highly complex piece of literature. It does not merely represent the description of the experiences the narrator has made on one Saturday afternoon but it contains far more: It implies information about the social system the speaker lives in, his family background and his psychology. It would therefore not be very appropriate to make use of only one of the approaches that have so far been developed in order to interpret literature. Thus, in the case of this story it is not the question whether the reader “should” relate the author’s biography to the text, consider its intertextuality or try to interpret the text on the basis of its words alone1. For some stories it may be possible to pose and answer this question clearly, but with respect to „On Saturday Afternoon“ it is not. Here a „mixture“ of different methods offers the best access to the text because it covers more aspects of the story than one single approach does. Consequently, in this term paper I am going to deal with the Short Story “On Saturday Afternoon” by Alan Sillitoe considering the following aspects: The contents of the story, its inner structure and its relation to Sillitoe ́s biography and some of his other works. In doing so I am aware of the fact that it is necessary and inevitable only to focus on certain aspects of the approaches - as the scope of this term paper is restricted- and therefore it is impossible to develop an interpretation which covers every aspect each one of these methods offers. Nevertheless I am convinced that the way I have chosen gains by the interplay of the accesses what it lacks from completeness.
For more than two hundred years after William Shakespeare's death, no one doubted that he had written his plays. Since then, however, dozens of candidates have been proposed for the authorship of what is generally agreed to be the finest body of work by a writer in the English language. In this remarkable book, Shakespeare scholar James Shapiro explains when and why so many people began to question whether Shakespeare wrote his plays. Among the doubters have been such writers and thinkers as Sigmund Freud, Henry James, Mark Twain, and Helen Keller. It is a fascinating story, replete with forgeries, deception, false claimants, ciphers and codes, conspiracy theories—and a stunning failure to grasp the power of the imagination.

As Contested Will makes clear, much more than proper attribution of Shakespeare’s plays is at stake in this authorship controversy. Underlying the arguments over whether Christopher Marlowe, Francis Bacon, or the Earl of Oxford wrote Shakespeare’s plays are fundamental questions about literary genius, specifically about the relationship of life and art. Are the plays (and poems) of Shakespeare a sort of hidden autobiography? Do Hamlet, Macbeth, and the other great plays somehow reveal who wrote them?

Shapiro is the first Shakespeare scholar to examine the authorship controversy and its history in this way, explaining what it means, why it matters, and how it has persisted despite abundant evidence that William Shakespeare of Stratford wrote the plays attributed to him. This is a brilliant historical investigation that will delight anyone interested in Shakespeare and the literary imagination.
Essay from the year 2001 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,0 (A), University of Hamburg (FB Anglistics), course: Seminar 1b: The Language of Poetry and Advertising, 3 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: For the purpose of interpreting literature a lot of different approaches have been developed. It is up to the reader to decide which one of these methods he wants to apply and whether he wants to relate the author’s biography to the text, to consider its intertextuality or to try to interpret the text on the basis of its words alone. All of these methods focus on different aspects of a text and thus enable the reader not only to gain but also to discuss and change his point of view. It is impossible to say in general which approach is more adequate for textseven though this question could be discussed for single texts in great detail. In this essay I am going to interpret a poem by Philip Larkin mainly with respect to the one characteristic: the style and its paralinguistic aspects. In doing so I am aware of the fact that my interpretation will not be as complete as it potentially may be possible (as I will not be able to cover every feature of the poem). Nevertheless I have chosen this approach because it enables me to spent more attention to this one characteristic. A brief examination of the language used in this poem will also be included. The question why I have decided to deal especially with the paralanguage of the poem may need some justification as it is a common belief that “Writing, of its nature, makes less use of paralanguage than speech. The physical substance of some written texts exists only to realise linguistic form” (Cook 1992, p. 71). Without any doubts this is true for most texts but still there are exceptions where the linguistic form and the content of the text do relate to each other in a motivated way. Examples of that kind are that rare that they are “both striking and well known” (Cook, 1992, p. 75) and not always is the relation as obvious as in Lewis Carrol ́s “The Mouse’s Tale” (Cook, 1992 p. 76) but “hidden” within the inner structure of the text - as in the following example. I am going to prove this statement examining three different aspects of the style the poem is written in.
Examensarbeit aus dem Jahr 2002 im Fachbereich Pädagogik - Schulwesen, Bildungs- u. Schulpolitik, Note: 1,0, Universität Hamburg, Veranstaltung: 1. Staatsexamen, 59 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, die gegenwärtige Diskussion kritisch zu beleuchten und punktuell zu erhellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden zunächst die Begriffe Leistung und Evaluation innerhalb des für sie relevanten Kontextes definiert. Im Anschluß daran sollen verschiedene Evaluationsarten kontrastiv vorgestellt werden. Der rein externen bzw. internen Evaluation, die in Deutschland zur Zeit vornehmlich praktiziert werden, wird ein Modell gegenübergestellt, welches in englischen Privatschulen angewandt wird. Dabei geht es darum, durch die Gegenüberstellung spezifische Vor- und Nachteile der Methoden herauszuarbeiten, um so Leistungsmessung und Evaluation zielgerichtet effektivieren zu können. Von zentraler Bedeutung ist in diesem Zusammenhang die Frage nach den der jeweiligen Evaluationsform zugrundeliegenden Kriterien, denn von den Kriterien hängt letztendlich der praktische Nutzen ab, den die verschiedenen Evaluationen bieten. Es wird sich zeigen, dass die Kriterien externer und interner Evaluationen in Deutschland und der Evaluation in England sich in einigen Punkten gleichen, während sie sich in anderen unterscheiden. Der Vergleich der angelegten Kriterien ist sinnvoll, weil er „einen der fundamentalen Wege zur Gewinnung und zur Erweiterung von Erkenntnissen sowie zur Erhöhung des Kenntnisniveaus“ (Mitter, 2001, S.91) darstellt. Dies erscheint insofern notwendig, als die gegenwärtig verwendeten Testverfahren einige Mängel aufweisen und nicht zuletzt deshalb umstritten sind. Auf die Gründe und Inhalte der kontroversen Diskussion wird im Folgenden eingegangen.
Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,7 (A-), University of Hamburg (Anglistics Seminar), course: Seminar 1b, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Short Story „On Saturday Afternoon“ by Alan Sillitoe is a highly complex piece of literature. It does not merely represent the description of the experiences the narrator has made on one Saturday afternoon but it contains far more: It implies information about the social system the speaker lives in, his family background and his psychology. It would therefore not be very appropriate to make use of only one of the approaches that have so far been developed in order to interpret literature. Thus, in the case of this story it is not the question whether the reader “should” relate the author’s biography to the text, consider its intertextuality or try to interpret the text on the basis of its words alone1. For some stories it may be possible to pose and answer this question clearly, but with respect to „On Saturday Afternoon“ it is not. Here a „mixture“ of different methods offers the best access to the text because it covers more aspects of the story than one single approach does. Consequently, in this term paper I am going to deal with the Short Story “On Saturday Afternoon” by Alan Sillitoe considering the following aspects: The contents of the story, its inner structure and its relation to Sillitoe ́s biography and some of his other works. In doing so I am aware of the fact that it is necessary and inevitable only to focus on certain aspects of the approaches - as the scope of this term paper is restricted- and therefore it is impossible to develop an interpretation which covers every aspect each one of these methods offers. Nevertheless I am convinced that the way I have chosen gains by the interplay of the accesses what it lacks from completeness.
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3 (A), University of Hamburg (Anglistics Seminar), course: Seminar II: Cognitive English Grammar, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: For centuries, the study of metonymy and metaphor has been regarded purely a matter of style and rhetoric. In addition to that, research into metonymic relationship traditionally has been put only second to the phenomenon of metaphor. However, things have changed a little over the past decades. Especially after Lakoff/ Johnson had published their influential work on metaphor and conceptualization (“Metaphors we live by”, 1980) research into cognitive aspects of language gained more ground in linguistics. Deeper insight into the way we structure our perception of the world has led to the conclusion that both, metaphor and metonymy, must be regarded as cognitive phenomena. As such they illustrate the fact that “fundamental cognitive abilities and experientially derived cognitive models have direct and pervasive linguistic manifestations” (Langacker, 1993, p.1) and, conversely, that by ways of examining language we can analyse important aspects of the way our mind is structured. As for metonymy, the relationship between thought and language is characterised by the fact that “an expression that normally designs one entity is used instead to designate another, associated entity” (Langacker, 1993, p. 29). Crucial questions which spring from this assumption are: How and why do we understand metonymies? Which principles are involved in the process of creating and understanding metonymic expressions and why can we rely on them?1 In the following, I will answer these questions on the basis of Ronald W. Langacker ́s essay “Reference-point Construction” (Langacker, 1993). I will apply Langacker ́s theoretical notions to a rather specific area of language: telic verbs. By way of referring to a selection of telic verbs I will argue that the understanding of telic verbs relies on metonymy- a metonymy that is not included in the lists of metonymies developed by some well-known linguists (cf.: Fass, 1997, 461-469). The contents of my term paper is structured in three parts: First of all, I am going to exemplify Langacker ́s theory about metonymic expressions. In a second step I will point out important characteristics of telic verbs. Finally, I will exemplify how the process of understanding telic verbs can be explained in terms of Langacker ́s theory.
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