Eros et Civilisation: Contribution à Freud

République des Lettres

Texte intégral révisé suivi d'une biographie d'Herbert Marcuse. Dans "Éros et civilisation", Herbert Marcuse renouvelle l'interprétation marxiste des structures sociales répressives à la lumière d'une relecture de Freud. Il conteste le freudisme comme théorie de l'intégration psychologique individuelle dans la société et renverse la conception freudienne des pulsions. Il y découvre aussi toute l'importance de l'imagination et des forces d'utopie qui, à l'œuvre dans l'art, par exemple, semblent renfermer la promesse d'un accomplissement du principe du plaisir. Au lieu de voir dans la pulsion de mort le principal moteur de la destinée humaine, il soutient que Éros (ou principe de plaisir) est la seule force capable de lutter contre l'ordre établi (principe de réalité) et contre Thanatos, source de toutes les résignations et de tous les pessimismes. Il s'agit pour lui, exactement comme le fait Jacques Lacan à la même époque, mais par d'autres moyens, de redonner au freudisme ce statut de doctrine subversive qu'il a perdu à force de s'édulcorer au contact des psychothérapies hygiénistes et pragmatiques des sociétés industrielles normalisées. Marcuse prône ainsi une théorie de la libération qui le conduit à imaginer une société fondée sur le dépassement des conflits et la possible pacification de l'existence.
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République des Lettres
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Oct 24, 2016
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Philosophy / General
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This collection assembles some of Herbert Marcuse’s most important work and presents for the first time his responses to and development of classic Marxist approaches to revolution and utopia, as well as his own theoretical and political perspectives.

This sixth and final volume of Marcuse's collected papers shows Marcuse’s rejection of the prevailing twentieth-century Marxist theory and socialist practice - which he saw as inadequate for a thorough critique of Western and Soviet bureaucracy - and the development of his revolutionary thought towards a critique of the consumer society. Marcuse's later philosophical perspectives on technology, ecology, and human emancipation sat at odds with many of the classic tenets of Marx’s materialist dialectic which placed the working class as the central agent of change in capitalist societies. As the material from this volume shows, Marcuse was not only a theorist of Marxist thought and practice in the twentieth century, but also proves to be an essential thinker for understanding the neoliberal phase of capitalism and resistance in the twenty-first century.

A comprehensive introduction by Douglas Kellner and Clayton Pierce places Marcuse’s philosophy in the context of his engagement with the main currents of twentieth century philosophy while also providing important analyses of his anticipatory theorization of capitalist development through a neoliberal restructuring of society. The volume concludes with an afterword by Peter Marcuse.

The New Left and the 1960s is the third volume of Herbert Marcuse's collected papers. In 1964, Marcuse published a major study of advanced industrial society, One Dimensional Man, which was an important influence on the young radicals who formed the New Left. Marcuse embodied many of the defining political impulses of the New Left in his thought and politics - hence a younger generation of political activists looked up to him for theoretical and political guidance. The material collected in this volume provides a rich and deep grasp of the era and the role of Marcuse in the theoretical and political dramas of the day.

This volume contains articles, letters, talks, and interviews including: "On the New Left," a transcription of the 1968 talk at the Guardian newspaper's twentieth anniversary; "Reflections on the French Revolution," which contains comments on the 1968 French student and worker uprising; "Liberation from the Affluent Society," which presents Marcuse's contribution to the 1967 Dialectics of Liberations conference; and "United States: Questions of Organization and the Revolutionary Subject," a conversation between Marcuse and the German writer Hans Magnus Enzenberger, published here in English for the first time.

Edited by Douglas Kellner, this volume will be of interest to all those previously unfamiliar with Herbert Marcuse, generally acknowledged as a major figure in the intellectual and social mileux of the 1960s and 1970s, as well as to specialists, who will here have access to papers and articles collected in one volume for the first time.
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