Introduction to Semiconductor Physics

World Scientific Publishing Company
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This book covers the physics of semiconductors on an introductory level, assuming that the reader already has some knowledge of condensed matter physics. Crystal structure, band structure, carrier transport, phonons, scattering processes and optical properties are presented for typical semiconductors such as silicon, but III–V and II–VI compounds are also included. In view of the increasing importance of wide-gap semiconductors, the electronic and optical properties of these materials are dealt with too.
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About the author

Holger T Grahn (Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Berlin)
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Additional Information

Publisher
World Scientific Publishing Company
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Published on
Apr 19, 1999
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Pages
196
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ISBN
9789813105157
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Physics / General
Technology & Engineering / Electronics / Semiconductors
Technology & Engineering / Superconductors & Superconductivity
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This study is a theoretical investigation of the electronic and optical properties of intrinsic semiconductors using the orthogonal empirical tight binding model. An analysis of the bulk properties of semiconductors with the zincblende, diamond and rocksalt structures has been carried out. We have extended the work of others to higher order in the interaction integrals and derived new parameter sets for certain semiconductors which better fit the experimental data over the Brillouin zone. The Hamiltonian of the heterostructures is built up layer by layer from the parameters of the bulk constituents. The second part of this work examines a number of applications of the theory. We present a new microscopic derivation of the intervalley deformation potentials within the tight binding representation and computes a number of conduction-band deformation potentials of bulk semiconductors. We have also studied the electronic states in heterostructures and have shown theoretically the possibility of having barrier localization of above-barrier states in a multivalley heterostructure using a multiband calculation. Another result is the proposal for a new "type-II" lasing mechanism in short-period GaAs/AlAs superlattices. As for our work on the optical properties, a new formalism, based on the generalized Feynman-Hellmann theorem, for computing interband optical matrix elements has been obtained and has been used to compute the linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of a number of bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures. In agreement with the one-band elective mass calculations of other groups, our more elaborate calculations show that the intersubband oscillator strengths of quantum wells can be greatly enhanced over the bulk interband values.
This book includes within its scope studies of the structural, electrical, optical and acoustical properties of bulk, low-dimensional and amorphous semiconductors; computational semiconductor physics; interface properties, including the physics and chemistry of heterojunctions, metal-semiconductor and insulator-semiconductor junctions; all multi-layered structures involving semiconductor components. Dopant incorporation. Growth and preparation of materials, including both epitaxial (e.g. molecular beam and chemical vapour methods) and bulk techniques; in situ monitoring of epitaxial growth processes, also included are appropriate aspects of surface science such as the influence of growth kinetics and chemical processing on layer and device properties. The physics of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices are examined , including theoretical modelling and experimental demonstration; all aspects of the technology of semiconductor device and circuit fabrication. Relevant areas of 'molecular electronics' and semiconductor structures incorporating Langmuir-Blodgett films; resists, lithography and metallisation where they are concerned with the definition of small geometry structure. The structural, electrical and optical characterisation of materials and device structures are also included. The scope encompasses materials and device reliability: reliability evaluation of technologies; failure analysis and advanced analysis techniques such as SEM, E-beam, optical emission microscopy, acoustic microscopy techniques; liquid crystal techniques; noise measurement, reliability prediction and simulation; reliability indicators; failure mechanisms, including charge migration, trapping, oxide breakdown, hot carrier effects, electro-migration, stress migration; package- related failure mechanisms; effects of operational and environmental stresses on reliability.
Modern Semiconductor Quantum Physics has the following constituents: (1) energy band theory: pseudopotential method (empirical and ab initio); density functional theory; quasi-particles; LCAO method; k.p method; spin-orbit splitting; effect mass and Luttinger parameters; strain effects and deformation potentials; temperature effects. (2) Optical properties: absorption and exciton effect; modulation spectroscopy; photo luminescence and photo luminescence excitation; Raman scattering and polaritons; photoionization. (3) Defects and Impurities: effective mass theory and shallow impurity states; deep state cluster method, super cell method,Green's function method; carrier recombination kinetics; trapping transient measurements; electron spin resonance; electron lattice interaction and lattice relaxation effects; multi-phonon nonradiative recombination; negative U center, DX center and EL2 Defects. (4) Semiconductor surfaces: two dimensional periodicity and surface reconstruction; surface electronic states; photo-electron spectroscopy; LEED, STM and other experimental methods. (5) Low-dimensional structures: Heterojunctions, quantum wells; superlattices, quantum-confined Stark effect and Wannier-Stark ladder effects; resonant tunneling, quantum Hall effect, quantum wires and quantum dots.This book can be used as an advanced textbook on semiconductor physics for graduate students in physics and electrical engineering departments. It is also useful as a research reference for solid state scientists and semiconductor device engineers.
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