La Ilíada, que narra el trágico y sangriento desenlace de la guerra de Troya, es quizá el poema épico más importante de la tradición occidental
La Ilíada es el poema más antiguo de la literatura occidental y está considerada como una de las grandes obras de nuestra tradición. Esta epopeya griega, que, como la Odisea, ha sido atribuida a Homero, es un canto al glorioso y trágico desenlace de la guerra de Troya. En la Antigüedad se consideraba que este poema se basaba en la historia real y que los personajes que aparecían en él eran un modelo de comportamiento y heroísmo. Los acontecimientos que narra tienen lugar en el transcurso de los últimos cincuenta y un días de un conflicto que duró diez largos años, y se desarrollan en torno a la figura del héroe heleno Aquiles, «el de los pies ligeros». A lo largo de los más de quince mil versos dela obra, Homero evoca conceptos tan centrales en la cultura griega antigua como el regreso, la gloria, el respeto, la ira y el destino.
La introducción y las notas que acompañan la traducción del escritor y traductor Fernando Gutiérrez han sido realizadas por el también traductor y docente Pere Güell.
«Compañeros, sed hombres, mostrad corazones sin miedo
y afrentaos si sentís cobardía en el duro combate,
que son más los que salvan la vida que los que la pierden
entre los que son dignos; al que huye, ni ayuda ni fama.»
Compuesta como la Ilíada en hexámetros, recoge numerosos cuentos populares y leyendas que, adaptadas, se integran en la epopeya. De este modo, mientras que en la Ilíada el tema central, la cólera de Aquiles, va avanzando inexorablemente, verso a verso, desde su planteamiento hasta su desenlace, en Odisea el regreso del héroe es narrado, con arte magistral, sin recelar de las vueltas atrás o de las digresiones, porque el objetivo supremo es lograr mayor gozo en la narración de bellas historias. Todo ello se logra, además, sin que merme en absoluto la cohesión que mantiene unidos sus episodios.
La Odisea narra las aventuras, peligros y desafíos que vivió el héroe griego Odiseo, durante más de diez años, para poder regresar a Ítaca a reunirse con su familia, luego del triunfo en la guerra de Troya.
Plagada de héroes enormes y poderosos, dioses y diosas a veces aliados, a veces enfrentados; soldados que huyen, soldados valerosos de los que ya nadie recuerda sus nombres y un héroe distinto a todos los demás: Aquiles, el de los pies ligeros, se encuentran en el campo de batalla. Esta extraordinaria historia, que llegó a nuestros días en la voz de Homero y que las maravillosas letras de Victoria Rigiroli nos vuelven a contar, es una invitación a viajar a los lejanos tiempos en que algunos dioses y algunos hombres se esforzaban por alimentar el fuego de la guerra y otros, con paciencia y dedicación, trabajaron para darle fin.
The Odyssey is literature's grandest evocation of every man's journey through life. In the myths and legends that are retold here, renowned translator Robert Fagles has captured the energy and poetry of Homer's original in a bold, contemporary idiom and given us an edition of The Odyssey to read aloud, to savor, and to treasure for its sheer lyrical mastery. This is an edition to delight both the classicist and the general reader, and to captivate a new generation of Homer's students.
From the Hardcover edition.
The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman myths) and his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage.
It continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many scholars believe that the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more likely intended to be heard than read. The details of the ancient oral performance, and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars. The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter. Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, and the influence on events of choices made by women and serfs, besides the actions of fighting men. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage.
The Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was not written by Homer. It was usually attributed in Antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta, but in one source was said to have been stolen from Musaeus by Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene (see Cyclic poets).
Homeros, In the Western classical tradition, Homer (Ancient Greek: Homeros) is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest of ancient Greek epic poets. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.
When he lived is unknown. Herodotus estimates that Homer lived 400 years before his own time, which would place him at around 850 BC, while other ancient sources claim that he lived much nearer to the supposed time of the Trojan War, in the early 12th century BC. Most modern researchers place Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC.
The formative influence of the Homeric epics in shaping Greek culture was widely recognized, and Homer was described as the teacher of Greece. Homer's works, which are about fifty percent speeches, provided models in persuasive speaking and writing that were emulated throughout the ancient and medieval Greek worlds. Fragments of Homer account for nearly half of all identifiable Greek literary papyrus finds.
For modern scholars "the date of Homer" refers not to an individual, but to the period when the epics were created. The consensus is that "the Iliad and the Odyssey date from around the 8th century BC, the Iliad being composed before the Odyssey, perhaps by some decades," i.e. earlier than Hesiod, the Iliad being the oldest work of Western literature. Over the past few decades, some scholars have argued for a 7th-century BC date. Oliver Taplin believes that the conclusion of modern researchers is that Homer dates to between 750 to 650 BC. Some of those who argue that the Homeric poems developed gradually over a long period of time give an even later date for the composition of the poems; according to Gregory Nagy for example, they only became fixed texts in the 6th century BC. The question of the historicity of Homer the individual is known as the "Homeric question"; there is no reliable biographical information handed down from classical antiquity. The poems are generally seen as the culmination of many generations of oral story-telling, in a tradition with a well-developed formulaic system of poetic composition. Some scholars, such as Martin West, claim that "Homer" is "not the name of a historical poet, but a fictitious or constructed name."
In Stephen Mitchell’s Iliad, the epic story resounds again across 2,700 years, as if the lifeblood of its heroes Achilles and Patroclus, Hector and Priam flows in every word. And we are there with them, amid the horror and ecstasy of war, carried along by a poetry that lifts even the most devastating human events into the realm of the beautiful.
Mitchell’s Iliad is the first translation based on the work of the preeminent Homeric scholar Martin L. West, whose edition of the original Greek identifies many passages that were added after the Iliad was first written down, to the detriment of the music and the story. Omitting these hundreds of interpolated lines restores a dramatically sharper, leaner text. In addition, Mitchell’s illuminating introduction opens the epic still further to our understanding and appreciation.
Now, thanks to Stephen Mitchell’s scholarship and the power of his language, the Iliad’s ancient story comes to moving, vivid new life.
Akhilleus' anger, doomed and ruinous,
that caused the Akhaians loss on bitter loss
and crowded brave souls into the undergloom,
leaving so many dead men-carrion
for dogs and birds; and the will of Zeus was done.
Since it was first published more than twenty-five years ago, Robert Fitzgerald's prizewinning translation of Homer's battle epic has become a classic in its own right: a standard against which all other versions of The Iliad are compared. Fitzgerald's work is accessible, ironic, faithful, written in a swift vernacular blank verse that "makes Homer live as never before" (Library Journal).
This edition includes a new foreword by Andrew Ford.
The Iliad opens in the late stages of the Trojan War, and, with reflection on prior battles, follows through the sacking of Troy and the Greeks' bitter victory. Spanning the defeats, allegiances, victories, and vengeances of mortals and Gods alike, this epic poem of the ages still manages to be intensely relevant to modern readers. The major thematic thrusts (glory, honor, wrath, and fate) are both the stuff of legend and part of our ongoing experience.
Now, in an updated prose translation from the original Greek, Blakely focuses his Iliad on the gripping heroics of Achilles and Patroclus, recounting a relatable tale of angry young men striving for glory, trapped by fate into prescribed warrior roles.
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This long-awaited new edition of Lattimore's Iliad is designed to bring the book into the twenty-first century—while leaving the poem as firmly rooted in ancient Greece as ever. Lattimore's elegant, fluent verses—with their memorably phrased heroic epithets and remarkable fidelity to the Greek—remain unchanged, but classicist Richard Martin has added a wealth of supplementary materials designed to aid new generations of readers. A new introduction sets the poem in the wider context of Greek life, warfare, society, and poetry, while line-by-line notes at the back of the volume offer explanations of unfamiliar terms, information about the Greek gods and heroes, and literary appreciation. A glossary and maps round out the book.
The result is a volume that actively invites readers into Homer's poem, helping them to understand fully the worlds in which he and his heroes lived—and thus enabling them to marvel, as so many have for centuries, at Hektor and Ajax, Paris and Helen, and the devastating rage of Achilleus.