Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Nato Science Series: IV

Book 62
Springer Science & Business Media
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.
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About the author

Barnes has held many posts, including Adjunct Professor of History at the University of North Carolina and the American Institute for Foreign Study's summer schools in London, Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Oslo.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Apr 23, 2006
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Pages
458
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ISBN
9781402042324
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / Environmental Conservation & Protection
Science / Environmental Science
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Internationally, the wetlands of headwater and upland regions provide many valuable environmental services. They influence flood flows, sediment loads and aquifer recharge; biochemical water qualities and biodiversity. They affect the livelihoods of many communities providing water, peat, timber, grazing, crops and, locally, aesthetic, cultural, recreational, nature conservation and educational benefits. Previously, many of these lands were valued only for their capacity to be converted to other uses through drainage and forestation. Today, their benefits are better appreciated. Better environmental management highlights ways of bringing enhanced benefits from these lands to all stakeholders and of minimising their potentially negative impacts due to climatic emissions of greenhouse gases, hydrological changes (especially flooding, water chemistry) and sediment release. This book moves towards a more comprehensive inventory of the benefits and costs of headwater wetlands. It evaluates the research that tries to understand the tolerances, exchanges, checks and balances within headwater landscapes and the downstream impacts of changes in wetlands. It employs case studies and reviews from 21 nations spanning Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. It explores the new policy frameworks, changes in land husbandry, new systems for community education, participatory processes and technological interventions required for the effective management of headwater wetlands and the full integration of wetlands (including newly constructed wetlands) into environmental management and planning. In the past, most research dealt with wetlands as isolated features, this book examines wetlands in their watershed management context.
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