Capital in the Twenty-First Century: by Thomas Piketty | Summary & Analysis

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Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty | Summary & Analysis

 

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Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century is a study of inequity, both historically and in the present. The book describes how the concentration of wealth has changed over time. Its central thesis is that return on capital is greater than growth over time, which means that capital and inequality inevitably increase. The book also considers the ways governments might address the increasing concentration of wealth in the future.

Many economists have argued that increasing worker productivity in the modern era will inevitably result in reduced inequality. The historical record suggests that this is untrue. For most of history, there has been a huge gap between the rich and poor with no real middle class.

That changed in developed countries during the twentieth century for a number of reasons. First, two world wars caused massive shocks to the status quo and resulted in severe losses to many holders of capital…

 

PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book.

 

Inside this Instaread Summary of Capital in the Twenty-First Century:

 

·      Overview of the Book

·      Important People

·      Key Takeaways

·      Analysis of Key Takeaways

 

About the Author

With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience.

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About the author

About the Author

With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience.

Read more
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Additional Information

Publisher
Instaread Summaries
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Published on
Jun 6, 2016
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Pages
45
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ISBN
9781683783282
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Development / Business Development
Business & Economics / Economics / Comparative
Business & Economics / Economics / Theory
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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The Challenge
Built to Last, the defining management study of the nineties, showed how great companies triumph over time and how long-term sustained performance can be engineered into the DNA of an enterprise from the verybeginning.

But what about the company that is not born with great DNA? How can good companies, mediocre companies, even bad companies achieve enduring greatness?

The Study
For years, this question preyed on the mind of Jim Collins. Are there companies that defy gravity and convert long-term mediocrity or worse into long-term superiority? And if so, what are the universal distinguishing characteristics that cause a company to go from good to great?

The Standards
Using tough benchmarks, Collins and his research team identified a set of elite companies that made the leap to great results and sustained those results for at least fifteen years. How great? After the leap, the good-to-great companies generated cumulative stock returns that beat the general stock market by an average of seven times in fifteen years, better than twice the results delivered by a composite index of the world's greatest companies, including Coca-Cola, Intel, General Electric, and Merck.

The Comparisons
The research team contrasted the good-to-great companies with a carefully selected set of comparison companies that failed to make the leap from good to great. What was different? Why did one set of companies become truly great performers while the other set remained only good?

Over five years, the team analyzed the histories of all twenty-eight companies in the study. After sifting through mountains of data and thousands of pages of interviews, Collins and his crew discovered the key determinants of greatness -- why some companies make the leap and others don't.

The Findings
The findings of the Good to Great study will surprise many readers and shed light on virtually every area of management strategy and practice. The findings include:

Level 5 Leaders: The research team was shocked to discover the type of leadership required to achieve greatness. The Hedgehog Concept (Simplicity within the Three Circles): To go from good to great requires transcending the curse of competence. A Culture of Discipline: When you combine a culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneurship, you get the magical alchemy of great results. Technology Accelerators: Good-to-great companies think differently about the role of technology. The Flywheel and the Doom Loop: Those who launch radical change programs and wrenching restructurings will almost certainly fail to make the leap.

“Some of the key concepts discerned in the study,” comments Jim Collins, "fly in the face of our modern business culture and will, quite frankly, upset some people.”

Perhaps, but who can afford to ignore these findings?

America is becoming a class-based society.

It is now conventional wisdom to focus on the wealth of the top 1 percent—especially the top 0.01 percent—and how the ultra-rich are concentrating income and prosperity while incomes for most other Americans are stagnant. But the most important, consequential, and widening gap in American society is between the upper middle class and everyone else.

Reeves defines the upper middle class as those whose incomes are in the top 20 percent of American society. Income is not the only way to measure a society, but in a market economy it is crucial because access to money generally determines who gets the best quality education, housing, health care, and other necessary goods and services.

As Reeves shows, the growing separation between the upper middle class and everyone else can be seen in family structure, neighborhoods, attitudes, and lifestyle. Those at the top of the income ladder are becoming more effective at passing on their status to their children, reducing overall social mobility. The result is not just an economic divide but a fracturing of American society along class lines. Upper-middle-class children become upper-middle-class adults.

These trends matter because the separation and perpetuation of the upper middle class corrode prospects for more progressive approaches to policy. Various forms of “opportunity hoarding” among the upper middle class make it harder for others to rise up to the top rung. Examples include zoning laws and schooling, occupational licensing, college application procedures, and the allocation of internships. Upper-middle-class opportunity hoarding, Reeves argues, results in a less competitive economy as well as a less open society.

Inequality is inevitable and can even be good, within limits. But Reeves argues that society can take effective action to reduce opportunity hoarding and thus promote broader opportunity. This fascinating book shows how American society has become the very class-defined society that earlier Americans rebelled against—and what can be done to restore a more equitable society.

PLEASE NOTE: This is a summary of the book and NOT the original book. World Order by Henry Kissinger - A 30-minute Instaread Summary
Inside this Instaread Summary:

• Overview of the entire book
• Introduction to the important people in the book
• Summary and analysis of all the chapters in the book
• Key Takeaways of the book
• A Reader's Perspective


Preview of this summary:


Chapter 1

In many early societies, order was created and maintained by central leadership rather than through the self-rule of states. Leaders in China and Islam fought for power. Other regions experienced chaos and frustration as they tried to establish order. Europe uniquely allowed different regions within the whole to rule themselves. Leaders felt this would allow their people to celebrate and balance their own interests.

The fall of the Roman Empire shattered the rules that Roman citizens had always lived by. Romans began to focus on Christianity, which was governed by the government and the church. Charlemagne, Roman emperor in 800, vowed to defend the church at all cost. The Empire disintegrated under his rule due to several civil wars. The emperor of Rome was elected by princes in unfair elections, and there was a constant struggle for power between the Pope and the emperor, making the concept of order seem completely out of reach.

Prince Charles of Habsburg became Holy Roman emperor after Charlemagne. Charles focused on protecting and exalting the Roman Catholic Church. He was unable to do so when Protestantism swept across the region.

By the fifteenth century, European explorers began traveling in search of wealth and fame. Soon, an increased focus on the individual and reason rather than the Church spread through Europe.

As the Thirty Years’ War raged on between catholics and protestants, France appointed Cardinal de Richelieu as the chief minister of France. Richelieu wanted to use the balance of power to help structure foreign policy. He believed that the divisions within Europe were important and focused on centralizing France’s government to maintain a balance of power...

 

 PLEASE NOTE: This is a summary of the book and NOT the original book. 
The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle - A 15-minute Instaread Summary Inside this Instaread Summary:

• Overview of the entire book
• Introduction to the important people in the book
• Summary and analysis of all the chapters in the book
• Key Takeaways of the book
• A Reader's Perspective


Preview of this summary:Chapter 1

Enlightenment, a feeling of awareness, peace, and joy, comes from within a person, not from outside sources. Enlightenment is an end to suffering and a feeling of connection to a person’s own true self and to the world. Enlightenment is being aware of a person’s own deepest self or Being. People have difficulty experiencing Being because of their identification with their own minds. Their own thoughts keep them from finding the stillness needed to experience Being.

When people identify with their thoughts, it blocks their relationships with others, nature, and God. Those who can observe themselves thinking realize that they are not their mind and that all things of importance, such as beauty, joy, love, and inner peace, come from beyond the mind. This state of consciousness is achieved when people feel their own presence beyond their thoughts, emotions, and physical bodies.

Another way to experience enlightenment is to focus all attention on the now, the present moment. The ego, or false self, barely notices the present moment. To the ego, only the past and the future are important.

Emotions are thoughts that are felt in the body. To reach full consciousness, people need to be able to see their emotions as separate from themselves…

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