Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucosal Growth

Morgan & Claypool Publishers
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The mammalian gastrointestinal mucosa is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body, and its homeostasis is preserved through the strict regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. The control of the growth of gastrointestinal mucosa is unique and, compared with most other tissue in the body, complex. Mucosal growth is regulated by the same hormones that alter metabolism in other tissues, but the gastrointestinal mucosa also responds to a host of events triggered by the ingestion and presence of food within the digestive tract. These gut hormones and peptides regulate the growth of the exocrine pancreas, gallbladder epithelium, and the mucosa of the oxyntic gland region of the stomach and the small and large intestines. Luminal factors (nutrients or other dietary factors, secretions, and microbes), which occur within the lumen and distribute over a proximal-to-distal gradient, are also crucial for the maintenance of the normal gut mucosal growth and could explain the villous height-crypt depth gradient and variety of adaptations since these factors are diluted, absorbed, and destroyed as they pass down the digestive tract. Recently, intestinal stem cells and polyamines are shown to play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth under physiological and various pathological conditions. In this chapter, we highlight key issues and factors that control gastrointestinal mucosal growth, with special emphasis on the mechanisms through which epithelial renewal is regulated by polyamines at the cellular and molecular levels. Table of Contents: Introduction / Intestinal Architecture and Development / Characteristics of Gut Mucosal Growth / Intestinal Stem Cells / Role of GI Hormones on the Gut Mucosal Growth / Peptide Growth Factors in GI Mucosal Growth / Luminal Nutrients and Microbes in Gut Mucosal Growth / Polyamines in the Regulation of Mucosal Growth / Summary and Conclusions / Acknowledgments / References
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About the author

Jaladanki N. Rao and Jian-Ying Wang University of Maryland School of Medicine and Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center
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Additional Information

Publisher
Morgan & Claypool Publishers
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Published on
Dec 31, 2011
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Pages
103
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ISBN
9781615041329
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / Gastroenterology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Jian-Ying Wang
Polyamines are organic cations found in all eukaryotic cells and intimately involved in, and required for, distinct biological functions. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the regulation of cellular polyamines is a central convergence point for the multiple signaling pathways driving various cellular functions. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in und- standing the molecular functions of cellular polyamines. These significant findings provide a fundamental basis to not only define the exact role of polyamines in physiology, but also to develop new therapeutic approaches for cancers and other diseases. The major objective of this book is to provide a timely and long lasting guide for investigators in the fields of polyamines, physiology, pharmacology, and cancer research. It will provide a foundation based on research and address the potential for subsequent applications in clinical practice. Polyamine Cell Signaling: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Cancer Research is divided into four main parts: Part I: Polyamines in Signal Transduction of Cell Proliferation Part II: Polyamines in Cellular Signaling of Apoptosis, Carcinogenesis, and Cancer Therapy Part III: Polyamines in Cell Motility and Cell–Cell Interactions Part IV: Polyamine Homeostasis and Transport This book not only covers the current state-of-the-art findings relevant to cellular and molecular functions of polyamines, but also provides the underlying conceptual basis and knowledge regarding potential therapeutic targeting of polyamines and polyamine metabolism. These points are addressed by int- nationally recognized experts in their contributions to this book.
Robynne Chutkan M.D.
The author of Gutbliss and one of today’s preeminent gastroenterologists distills the latest research on the microbiome into a practical program for boosting overall health.
 
Michael Pollan’s widely discussed New York Times article, “Some of My Best Friends Are Germs,” was just the tip of the iceberg. The microbiome—the collective name for the trillions of bacteria that live in our gut—is today’s hottest medical news topic. Synthesizing the latest findings, Dr. Robynne Chutkan explains how the standard Western diet and lifestyle are starving our microbiome, depleting the “good bugs” that keep us healthy and encouraging overgrowth of exactly the wrong type of bacteria. The resulting imbalance makes us more prone to disease and obesity and negatively affects our metabolism, our hormones, our cravings, our immunity, and even our genes. But beyond the science, what sets this book apart is Dr. Chutkan’s powerful three-level program for optimizing your gut bacteria for good health.
Dr. Chutkan shares:
Why hand-sanitizing gels and antibiotics are stripping our bodies of their natural protective systemsEssential prebiotics and probioticsRecipes with ingredients that replenish the microbiome for each rehab levelCutting-edge research on the connection between the microbiome and the brainAn intro to the stool transplant, the superfix for a severely troubled microbiome 
Dr. Chutkan is one of the most recognizable gastroenterologists working in America today, and this is the first book to distill the research into a practical, effective plan for replenishing our microbiomes. The Microbiome Solution will bring welcome relief to the millions who want to grow a good “gut garden”—and enjoy healthier, happier lives.
Rao N. Jaladanki
The mammalian gastrointestinal mucosa is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body, and its homeostasis is preserved through the strict regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. The control of the growth of gastrointestinal mucosa is unique and, compared with most other tissue in the body, complex. Mucosal growth is regulated by the same hormones that alter metabolism in other tissues, but the gastrointestinal mucosa also responds to host events triggered by the ingestion and presence of food within the digestive tract. These gut hormones and peptides regulate the growth of the exocrine pancreas, gallbladder epithelium, and the mucosa of the oxyntic gland region of the stomach and the small and large intestines. Luminal factors, including nutrients or other dietary factors, secretions, and microbes that occur within the lumen and distribute over a proximal-to-distal gradient, are also crucial for maintenance of normal gut mucosal regeneration and could explain the villous-height-crypt-depth gradient and variety of adaptation, since these factors are diluted, absorbed, and destroyed as they pass down the digestive tract. Recently, intestinal stem cells, cellular polyamines, and noncoding RNAs are shown to play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth under physiological and various pathological conditions. In this book, we highlight key issues and factors that control gastrointestinal mucosal growth and homeostasis, with special emphasis on the mechanisms through which epithelial renewal and apoptosis are regulated at the cellular and molecular levels.
Jian-Ying Wang
Polyamines are organic cations found in all eukaryotic cells and intimately involved in, and required for, distinct biological functions. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the regulation of cellular polyamines is a central convergence point for the multiple signaling pathways driving various cellular functions. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in und- standing the molecular functions of cellular polyamines. These significant findings provide a fundamental basis to not only define the exact role of polyamines in physiology, but also to develop new therapeutic approaches for cancers and other diseases. The major objective of this book is to provide a timely and long lasting guide for investigators in the fields of polyamines, physiology, pharmacology, and cancer research. It will provide a foundation based on research and address the potential for subsequent applications in clinical practice. Polyamine Cell Signaling: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Cancer Research is divided into four main parts: Part I: Polyamines in Signal Transduction of Cell Proliferation Part II: Polyamines in Cellular Signaling of Apoptosis, Carcinogenesis, and Cancer Therapy Part III: Polyamines in Cell Motility and Cell–Cell Interactions Part IV: Polyamine Homeostasis and Transport This book not only covers the current state-of-the-art findings relevant to cellular and molecular functions of polyamines, but also provides the underlying conceptual basis and knowledge regarding potential therapeutic targeting of polyamines and polyamine metabolism. These points are addressed by int- nationally recognized experts in their contributions to this book.
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