Semantics: A Coursebook, Edition 2

Cambridge University Press
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This practical coursebook introduces all the basics of semantics in a simple, step-by-step fashion. Each unit includes short sections of explanation with examples, followed by stimulating practice exercises to complete in the book. Feedback and comment sections follow each exercise to enable students to monitor their progress. No previous background in semantics is assumed, as students begin by discovering the value and fascination of the subject and then move through all key topics in the field, including sense and reference, simple logic, word meaning and interpersonal meaning. New study guides and exercises have been added to the end of each unit to help reinforce and test learning. A completely new unit on non-literal language and metaphor, plus updates throughout the text significantly expand the scope of the original edition to bring it up-to-date with modern teaching of semantics for introductory courses in linguistics as well as intermediate students.
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About the author

James R. Hurford is Professor of General Linguistics, University of Edinburgh.

Brendan Heasley is Consultant (Postgraduate Training), Sharjah Women College, United Arab Emirates.

Michael B. Smith is Associate Professor of Linguistics, Oakland University, Michigan.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Cambridge University Press
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Published on
Apr 19, 2007
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Pages
361
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ISBN
9781139463324
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / General
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / Semantics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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MORE THAN 15 YEARS OF WORK TO PREPARE THIS UNIQUE DICTIONARY


People often say they haven’t yet found a good dictionary to interpret their dreams, signs and symbols. The Source Code brings a whole new vision to the subject and will surely become one of the most important reference books in this field. It will be published simultaneously in English and French and found in bookstores and malls in many countries all over the world, including the UK and the USA. It’s written by Kaya, one of today’s most eminent specialists in dream interpretation, assisted by over 100 of his students, who are doctors, psychologists, nurses, therapists, linguists, teachers and specialists in many fields, in many different countries. The idea of uniting so many people for this extraordinary project came from the workshops Kaya has been giving on dream and symbol interpretation for over 12 years now. During these workshops, when Kaya asked students in groups of 4 to deepen and define symbols, he realized how advanced they were, and so he asked them to help him finish his work. Hence his publishing house, UCM set up work teams to carry out the necessary research so Kaya could then write the final metaphysical syntheses and definitions.


A book presenting the + and – of each symbol


The Dictionary, Dreams-Signs-Symbols, The Source Code, helps us discover, in great depth, over 870 pages, the most common words in dreams and signs. Each word is analyzed in detail with its physical and metaphysical characteristics, and a synthesis defining the + and – of each symbol is included. This provides the reader with an analytical, understandable vision of the various different possible interpretations. Just one word may occupy 2 or 3 explanatory pages, which makes this Dictionary very complete from all points of view. Readers will also find a detailed introduction explaining dream mechanics as well as the multiple angles and subtleties of dream and sign interpretation.


Extract from the Preface by Kasara (Kaya’s daughter)


The day we receive The Source Code, our life changes completely… Shortly after my birth, my father’s life completely changed. From one day to the next, he started having 10-50 dreams every night. He studied dreams in his dream. He could no longer tell the difference between dream and reality. To everyone’s surprise, he quit everything. He became the village fool, the incomprehensible hermit, and all to deepen his research and understanding of dreams. Everyone either laughed at him or didn’t understand. I lived through this change alongside him – those early years when we feel other people’s fear and mistrust because we aren’t like everyone else. The greatest philosophers and scholars of the past often lived as visionaries before being really understood, because they traced a new path, one which called into question our way of thinking and understanding of the world we live in.


My father went through many ordeals to offer us this unique book. You have no idea how psychologically difficult it was. I sometimes consoled him, hugging him, telling him it was going to be ok; everything was going to be all right. I have so much admiration and love for my father. He sacrificed his career, everything a man could wish for, in order to follow his inner guidance, the wind of change and transformation that took form in his dreams. Above all, he had the courage to turn the page, to completely change his life in order to get to know himself better, to better understand the Source Code and to transmit it to us today. Now, with this revolution of Knowledge for the science of our conscience, the great changes he undertook take on their full meaning. Surpassing all of the previous research into the meaning of dreams, Kaya opens the path to our autonomy of conscience; he helps us understand the multi-dimensions, the metaphysics that we all have within ourselves. He may have been ridiculed and denigrated as a man, but this whole path was all worthwhile to help people all over the world who are on a spiritual path today, seeking to make sense of their lives; therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists and doctors now use The Source Code to help patients better understand how their conscience works. 

The new, revised and updated 7th edition ofMarch’s Advanced Organic Chemistry clearly explainsthe theories and examples of organic chemistry, providing the mostcomprehensive resource about organic chemistry available.

Readers are guided on planning and execution of multi-stepsynthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all thereactions. The first five chapters deal with the structure oforganic compounds and discuss important organic chemistrybonds, fundamental principles of conformation, and stereochemistryof organic molecules, and reactive intermediates in organicchemistry. Chapters 6 to 9 are concerned with generalprinciples of mechanism in organic chemistry, including acids andbases, photochemistry, sonochemistry and microwave irradiation, andfinally the relationship between structure and reactivity. Thelast 10 chapters cover the nature and the scope of organicreactions and their mechanisms.

The 7th edition proves again it is a must-havedesktop reference and textbook for every student and professionalworking in organic chemistry or related fields.

Key features of the 7th edition:

Every chapter has been updated with the most recent reactioninformation with references to both the primary and reviewliteratureNew to the 7th edition: 5,500 references since the lastedition, updates / rewrites of the retained sections, and anupdated index in Appendix BContains more than 1650 reactions and 20,000 valuablereferences to the primary literatureIncludes appendices on the literature of organic chemistry andthe classification of reactions according to the compoundssynthesizedGuides the reader on planning and execution of multi-stepsynthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all thereactions. 

Reviews of the previous edition:

"...a favorite general organic chemistry text and an easy-to-useone-volume reference. We are confident that this book will remain adominant reference and that it will reside on many chemists'personal bookshelves." –Journal of MedicinalChemistry

"Who can hope to be seriously accepted as a member of theorganic chemistry community without being in possession of at leastone edition of 'March'?" –Chemistry and Industry

In this, the first of two ground-breaking volumes on the nature of language in the light of the way it evolved, James Hurford looks at how the world first came to have a meaning in the minds of animals and how in humans this meaning eventually came to be expressed as language. He reviews a mass of evidence to show how close some animals, especially primates and more especially apes, are to the brink of human language. Apes may not talk to us but they construct rich cognitive representations of the world around them, and here, he shows, are the evolutionary seeds of abstract thought - the means of referring to objects, the memory of events, even elements of the propositional thinking philosophers have hitherto reserved for humans. What then, he asks, is the evolutionary path between the non-speaking minds of apes and our own speaking minds? Why don't apes communicate the richness of their thoughts to each other? Why do humans alone have a unique disposition to reveal their thoughts in complex detail? Professor Hurford searches a wide range of evidence for the answers to these central questions, including degrees of trust, the role of hormones, the ability to read minds, and the willingness to cooperate. Expressing himself congenially in consistently colloquial language the author builds up a vivid picture of how mind, language, and meaning evolved over millions of years. His book is a landmark contribution to the understanding of linguistic and thinking processes, and the fullest account yet published of the evolution of language and communication. "A wonderful read - lucid, informative, and entertaining, while at the same time never talking down to the reader by sacrificing argumentation for the sake of 'simplicity'. Likely to be heralded as the major publication dealing with language evolution to date. Frederick J. Newmeyer, University of Washington
In this, the first of two ground-breaking volumes on the nature of language in the light of the way it evolved, James Hurford looks at how the world first came to have a meaning in the minds of animals and how in humans this meaning eventually came to be expressed as language. He reviews a mass of evidence to show how close some animals, especially primates and more especially apes, are to the brink of human language. Apes may not talk to us but they construct rich cognitive representations of the world around them, and here, he shows, are the evolutionary seeds of abstract thought - the means of referring to objects, the memory of events, even elements of the propositional thinking philosophers have hitherto reserved for humans. What then, he asks, is the evolutionary path between the non-speaking minds of apes and our own speaking minds? Why don't apes communicate the richness of their thoughts to each other? Why do humans alone have a unique disposition to reveal their thoughts in complex detail? Professor Hurford searches a wide range of evidence for the answers to these central questions, including degrees of trust, the role of hormones, the ability to read minds, and the willingness to cooperate. Expressing himself congenially in consistently colloquial language the author builds up a vivid picture of how mind, language, and meaning evolved over millions of years. His book is a landmark contribution to the understanding of linguistic and thinking processes, and the fullest account yet published of the evolution of language and communication. "A wonderful read - lucid, informative, and entertaining, while at the same time never talking down to the reader by sacrificing argumentation for the sake of 'simplicity'. Likely to be heralded as the major publication dealing with language evolution to date. Frederick J. Newmeyer, University of Washington
The new, revised and updated 7th edition ofMarch’s Advanced Organic Chemistry clearly explainsthe theories and examples of organic chemistry, providing the mostcomprehensive resource about organic chemistry available.

Readers are guided on planning and execution of multi-stepsynthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all thereactions. The first five chapters deal with the structure oforganic compounds and discuss important organic chemistrybonds, fundamental principles of conformation, and stereochemistryof organic molecules, and reactive intermediates in organicchemistry. Chapters 6 to 9 are concerned with generalprinciples of mechanism in organic chemistry, including acids andbases, photochemistry, sonochemistry and microwave irradiation, andfinally the relationship between structure and reactivity. Thelast 10 chapters cover the nature and the scope of organicreactions and their mechanisms.

The 7th edition proves again it is a must-havedesktop reference and textbook for every student and professionalworking in organic chemistry or related fields.

Key features of the 7th edition:

Every chapter has been updated with the most recent reactioninformation with references to both the primary and reviewliteratureNew to the 7th edition: 5,500 references since the lastedition, updates / rewrites of the retained sections, and anupdated index in Appendix BContains more than 1650 reactions and 20,000 valuablereferences to the primary literatureIncludes appendices on the literature of organic chemistry andthe classification of reactions according to the compoundssynthesizedGuides the reader on planning and execution of multi-stepsynthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all thereactions. 

Reviews of the previous edition:

"...a favorite general organic chemistry text and an easy-to-useone-volume reference. We are confident that this book will remain adominant reference and that it will reside on many chemists'personal bookshelves." –Journal of MedicinalChemistry

"Who can hope to be seriously accepted as a member of theorganic chemistry community without being in possession of at leastone edition of 'March'?" –Chemistry and Industry

This is the second of the two closely linked but self-contained volumes that comprise James Hurford's acclaimed exploration of the biological evolution of language. In the first book he looked at the evolutionary origins of meaning, ending as our distant ancestors were about to step over the brink to modern language. He now considers how that step might have been taken and the consequences it undoubtedly had. The capacity for language lets human beings formulate and express an unlimited range of propositions about real or fictitious worlds. It allows them to communicate these propositions, often overlaid with layers of nuance and irony, to other humans who can then interpret and respond to them. These processes take place at breakneck speed. Using a language means learning a vast number of arbitrary connections between forms and meanings and rules on how to manipulate them, both of which a normal human child can do in its first few years of life. James Hurford looks at how this miracle came about. The book is divided into three parts. In the first the author surveys the syntactic structures evident in the communicative behaviour of animals, such as birds and whales, and discusses how vocabularies of learned symbols could have evolved and the effects this had on human thought. In the second he considers how far the evolution of grammar depended on biological or cultural factors. In the third and final part he describes the probable route by which the human language faculty and languages evolved from simple beginnings to their present complex state.
A reactions oriented course is a staple of most graduate organic programs, and synthesis is taught either as a part of that course or as a special topic. Ideally, the incoming student is an organic major, who has a good working knowledge of basic reactions, stereochemistry and conformational principles. In fact, however, many (often most) of the students in a first year graduate level organic course have deficiencies in their undergraduate work, are not organic majors and are not synthetically inclined.

To save students much time catching up this text provides a reliable and readily available source for background material that will enable all graduate students to reach the same high level of proficiency in organic chemistry. Produced over many years with extensive feedback from students taking an organic chemistry course this book provides a reaction based approach. The first two chapters provide an introduction to functional groups; these are followed by chapters reviewing basic organic transformations (e.g. oxidation, reduction). The book then looks at carbon-carbon bond formation reactions and ways to ‘disconnect’ a bigger molecule into simpler building blocks.

Most chapters include an extensive list of questions to test the reader’s understanding. There is also a new chapter outlining full retrosynthetic analyses of complex molecules which highlights common problems made by scientists.

The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students, scientific researchers in chemistry

New publisher, new edition; extensively updated and corrected Over 950 new references with more than 6100 references in total Over 600 new reactions and figures replaced or updatedOver 300 new homework problems from the current literature to provide nearly 800 problems to test reader understanding of the key principles
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