Methods and Styles in the Development of Chemistry: Volume 245

American Philosophical Society
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Chemistry as it is known today is deeply rooted in a variety of thought & action, dating back at least as far as the fifth century B.C. In this book, Joseph Fruton weaves together the history of scientific investigation with social, religious, philosophical, & other events & practices that have contributed to the field of modern chemistry. The story begins with the influence of alchemy on early Greek numerology and philosophy, followed by the historical account of chemical composition and phlogiston. The life and work of Antoine Lavoisier receive extensive coverage in Chapter Three, with the remaining six chapters devoted to atoms, equivalents, and elements; radicals and types; valence and molectualr structure; stereochemistry and organic synthesis; forces, equilibria, and rates; and electrons, reaction mechanisms, and organic synthesis.
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About the author

Fruton is Eugene Higgins Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and professor emeritus of the history of medicine at Yale University.

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American Philosophical Society
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Published on
Dec 31, 2002
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Philosophy / General
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Historians of European music of the early-modern period have focused particular attention upon the formal institutions and agents of patronage: ecclesiastical institutions, royal and aristocratic courts, etc. Like their colleagues in sister humanistic disciplines, musicologists are increasingly focusing upon less formal private "institutions" and traditions of patronage: informal academies and societies, the activities of individuals, convivial aristocratic companies. Cultural life in early-16th-century Florence was characterized by the practices of a series of vital institutions of this type: the famous group that met in the Rucellai garden, the Medici Sacred Academy, the Companies of the Broncone, Cazzuola, and Diamante. Such informal institutions had considerable virtues as agents of patronage; their less routinized practices freed them to engage in experimentation that the larger and more public and formal institutions were less likely to support, given their regularized practices and well-established traditions. For music historians, the importance of these informal agents of patronage is that they reveal a relationship to the early madrigal: to early madrigal poets and composers, whose professional activities were closely aligned to those of the contemporary informal academies and literary societies. Through reference to sources multidisciplinary in nature, this study reconstructs the memberships, cultural activities, and musical experiences of these informal Florentine institutions and relates them to the emergence of the madrigal, the foremost secular musical genre of early-modern Europe. Anthony M. Cummings received a Ph.D. in Musicology from Princeton University in 1980, where he was a Lecturer in Music. His dissertation was on "A Florentine Sacred Repertory from the Medici Restoration." From 1990-1992 he was a member of the program staff at The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. He has been an Associate Professor of Music in the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Tulane University since 1992. Dr. Cummings currently is Chairman of the Newcomb Department of Music at Tulane. Articles and other publications include "Giulio de' Medici's Music Books" (in Early Music History X, Cambridge University Press, 1991, pages 63-120), The Politicized Muse: Music for Medici Festivals, 1512-1537 (Princeton Essays on the Arts, Princeton University Press, 1992), University Libraries and Scholarly Communication: A Study Prepared for the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (with William G. Bowen, et al., The Haworth Press, 1996), and "Music: Transmission of Music" (in Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, edited by Paul F. Grendler, Charles Scribner's Sons in association with the Renaissance Society of America, 2000. "The scholarship is sound, well documented, and up to date. One of the strengths of the book is the breadth of its coverage. The material will be of interest to scholars in all areas of Florentine Renaissance studies. The author's comprehensive organization of the material and the conclusions he draws from it, and his ideas about the role of Medici patronage of the early madrigal, are original and important. The book is richly illustrated with both visual materials and musical examples. A wonderful contribution." -- Ruth I. DeFord, Ph.D., Professor of Music, Harvard University Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York.
Forget not Mee & My Garden. . . , Peter Collinson wrote his Maryland friend George Robins in 1721. "If you have any Shells, Curious Stones, or any other Naturall Curiosity Remember Mee. I want one of your Humming Birds which you may send dry'd in its Feathers, and any Curious Insect." This theme echoed through Collinson's letters for the rest of his life, along with thanks for rarities received, introductions, cultivation instructions, encouragements, importunings, queries. Armstrong describes Collinson's correspondence as, "vigorous, brisk, and emphatic." His letters talk mainly of plants, but there are also antiquities, birds, butterflies, British imperial interests, sheep management in Spain, electricity, weather, fossils, insects, earthquakes, vine culture, Colonial policy, tithes, wars, terrapins, "an Infalible Remedy for the bite of a Mad Dog,' red Indians, astronomy, the making of salt, cheese fairs, the price of wheat, the power of snakes to charm, the Spanish threat to Florida, geology, French expansion," Hints . . . to Incorporate the Germans more with the [Pennsylvania] English. . . , the history of rice growing, premiums to encourage the production of silk, whether swallows migrate or winter-over under water, "Old Hock" as a remedy for gout, thundergusts, magnetism, Bezoar stones, & now & then a Quakerly comment. This selection of 187 letters is enhanced with over 120 illustrations (portraits and botanical drawings among them), some by Mark Catesby, Georg Dionysius Ehret, William Bartram, many in color. Includes notes & commentary for most letters.
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