This book provides an understanding of the microbial challenges to the safety of low aw foods, and a historic backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw foods as vehicles for foodborne pathogens. Up-to-date facts and figures of foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are included. Special attention is given to the uncanny ability of Salmonella to persist under dry conditions in food processing plants and foods. A section is dedicated specifically to processing plant investigations, providing practical approaches to determining sources of persistent bacterial strains in the industrial food processing environment. Readers are guided through dry cleaning, wet cleaning and alternatives to processing plant hygiene and sanitation. Separate chapters are devoted to low aw food commodities of interest including spices, dried dairy-based products, low aw meat products, dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, nuts and nut pastes, flours and meals, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and pet foods. The book provides regulatory testing guidelines and recommendations as well as guidance through methodological and sampling challenges to testing spices and low aw foods for the presence of foodborne pathogens. Chapters also address decontamination processes for low aw foods, including heat, steam, irradiation, microwave, and alternative energy-based treatments.
Joshua B. Gurtler, USDA Research Scientist, Phoenixville, PA
Michael P. Doyle, Regents Professor of Food Microbiology, Director, Center for Food Safety, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA
Jeffrey L. Kornacki, President and Senior Technical Director, Kornacki Microbiology Solutions, Inc., Madison, WI
The discovery of stable carbenes has reinvigorated carbene chemistry research, with investigators seeking to develop carbenes into new useful catalysts and ligands. Presenting the most innovative and promising areas of carbene research over the past decade, this book explores newly discovered structural, catalytic, and organometallic aspects of carbene chemistry, with an emphasis on new and emerging synthetic applications.
Contemporary Carbene Chemistry features contributions from an international team of pioneering carbene chemistry researchers. Collectively, these authors have highlighted the most interesting and promising areas of investigation in the field. The book is divided into two parts:Part 1, Properties and Reactions of Carbenes, explores new findings on carbene stability, acid-base behavior, and catalysis. Carbenic structure and reactivity are examined in chapters dedicated to stable carbenes, carbodicarbenes, carbenes as guests in supramolecular hosts, tunneling in carbene and oxacarbene reactions, and ultrafast kinetics of carbenes and their excited state precursors. Theoretical concerns are addressed in chapters on computational methods and dynamics applied to carbene reactions. Part 2, Metal Carbenes, is dedicated to the synthetic dimensions of carbenes, particularly the reactions and catalytic properties of metal carbenes. The authors discuss lithium, rhodium, ruthenium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and gold.
All the chapters conclude with a summary of the current situation, new challenges on the horizon, and promising new research directions. A list of key reviews and suggestions for further reading also accompanies every chapter.
Each volume of the Wiley Series on Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology focuses on a specific reactive intermediate, offering a broad range of perspectives from leading experts that sets the stage for new applications and further discoveries.