Haitian Connections in the Atlantic World: Recognition after Revolution

UNC Press Books
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On January 1, 1804, Haiti shocked the world by declaring independence. Historians have long portrayed Haiti's postrevolutionary period as one during which the international community rejected Haiti's Declaration of Independence and adopted a policy of isolation designed to contain the impact of the world's only successful slave revolution. Julia Gaffield, however, anchors a fresh vision of Haiti's first tentative years of independence to its relationships with other nations and empires and reveals the surprising limits of the country's supposed isolation.

Gaffield frames Haitian independence as both a practical and an intellectual challenge to powerful ideologies of racial hierarchy and slavery, national sovereignty, and trade practice. Yet that very independence offered a new arena in which imperial powers competed for advantages with respect to military strategy, economic expansion, and international law. In dealing with such concerns, foreign governments, merchants, abolitionists, and others provided openings that were seized by early Haitian leaders who were eager to negotiate new economic and political relationships. Although full political acceptance was slow to come, economic recognition was extended by degrees to Haiti--and this had diplomatic implications. Gaffield's account of Haitian history highlights how this layered recognition sustained Haitian independence.

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About the author

Julia Gaffield is assistant professor of history at Georgia State University.

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Additional Information

Publisher
UNC Press Books
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Published on
Sep 24, 2015
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Pages
270
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ISBN
9781469625638
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Language
English
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Genres
History / Caribbean & West Indies / General
Political Science / International Relations / Diplomacy
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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While the Age of Revolution has long been associated with the French and American Revolutions, increasing attention is being paid to the Haitian Revolution as the third great event in the making of the modern world. A product of the only successful slave revolution in history, Haiti’s Declaration of Independence in 1804 stands at a major turning point in the trajectory of social, economic, and political relations in the modern world. This declaration created the second independent country in the Americas and certified a new genre of political writing. Despite Haiti’s global significance, however, scholars are only now beginning to understand the context, content, and implications of the Haitian Declaration of Independence.

This collection represents the first in-depth, interdisciplinary, and integrated analysis by American, British, and Haitian scholars of the creation and dissemination of the document, its content and reception, and its legacy. Throughout, the contributors use newly discovered archival materials and innovative research methods to reframe the importance of Haiti within the Age of Revolution and to reinterpret the declaration as a founding document of the nineteenth-century Atlantic World.

The authors offer new research about the key figures involved in the writing and styling of the document, its publication and dissemination, the significance of the declaration in the creation of a new nation-state, and its implications for neighboring islands. The contributors also use diverse sources to understand the lasting impact of the declaration on the country more broadly, its annual celebration and importance in the formation of a national identity, and its memory and celebration in Haitian Vodou song and ceremony. Taken together, these essays offer a clearer and more thorough understanding of the intricacies and complexities of the world’s second declaration of independence to create a lasting nation-state.

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Finding and identifying a pirate ship is the hardest thing to do under the sea. But two men—John Chatterton and John Mattera—are willing to risk everything to find the Golden Fleece, the ship of the infamous pirate Joseph Bannister. At large during the Golden Age of Piracy in the seventeenth century, Bannister should have been immortalized in the lore of the sea—his exploits more notorious than Blackbeard’s, more daring than Kidd’s. But his story, and his ship, have been lost to time. If Chatterton and Mattera succeed, they will make history—it will be just the second time ever that a pirate ship has been discovered and positively identified. Soon, however, they realize that cutting-edge technology and a willingness to lose everything aren’t enough to track down Bannister’s ship. They must travel the globe in search of historic documents and accounts of the great pirate’s exploits, face down dangerous rivals, battle the tides of nations and governments and experts. But it’s only when they learn to think and act like pirates—like Bannister—that they become able to go where no pirate hunters have gone before.

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From the Hardcover edition.
The powerful, untold story of the 1950 revolution in Puerto Rico and the long history of U.S. intervention on the island, that the New York Times says "could not be more timely."In 1950, after over fifty years of military occupation and colonial rule, the Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico staged an unsuccessful armed insurrection against the United States. Violence swept through the island: assassins were sent to kill President Harry Truman, gunfights roared in eight towns, police stations and post offices were burned down. In order to suppress this uprising, the US Army deployed thousands of troops and bombarded two towns, marking the first time in history that the US government bombed its own citizens.

Nelson A. Denis tells this powerful story through the controversial life of Pedro Albizu Campos, who served as the president of the Nationalist Party. A lawyer, chemical engineer, and the first Puerto Rican to graduate from Harvard Law School, Albizu Campos was imprisoned for twenty-five years and died under mysterious circumstances. By tracing his life and death, Denis shows how the journey of Albizu Campos is part of a larger story of Puerto Rico and US colonialism.

Through oral histories, personal interviews, eyewitness accounts, congressional testimony, and recently declassified FBI files, War Against All Puerto Ricans tells the story of a forgotten revolution and its context in Puerto Rico's history, from the US invasion in 1898 to the modern-day struggle for self-determination. Denis provides an unflinching account of the gunfights, prison riots, political intrigue, FBI and CIA covert activity, and mass hysteria that accompanied this tumultuous period in Puerto Rican history.
While the Age of Revolution has long been associated with the French and American Revolutions, increasing attention is being paid to the Haitian Revolution as the third great event in the making of the modern world. A product of the only successful slave revolution in history, Haiti’s Declaration of Independence in 1804 stands at a major turning point in the trajectory of social, economic, and political relations in the modern world. This declaration created the second independent country in the Americas and certified a new genre of political writing. Despite Haiti’s global significance, however, scholars are only now beginning to understand the context, content, and implications of the Haitian Declaration of Independence.

This collection represents the first in-depth, interdisciplinary, and integrated analysis by American, British, and Haitian scholars of the creation and dissemination of the document, its content and reception, and its legacy. Throughout, the contributors use newly discovered archival materials and innovative research methods to reframe the importance of Haiti within the Age of Revolution and to reinterpret the declaration as a founding document of the nineteenth-century Atlantic World.

The authors offer new research about the key figures involved in the writing and styling of the document, its publication and dissemination, the significance of the declaration in the creation of a new nation-state, and its implications for neighboring islands. The contributors also use diverse sources to understand the lasting impact of the declaration on the country more broadly, its annual celebration and importance in the formation of a national identity, and its memory and celebration in Haitian Vodou song and ceremony. Taken together, these essays offer a clearer and more thorough understanding of the intricacies and complexities of the world’s second declaration of independence to create a lasting nation-state.

Mit den Verfassungsdokumenten Haitis von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts liegt als Band 10 des Amerika-Teils der Reihe Verfassungen der Welt eine weiter verfassungshistorisch bedeutsame Edition vor. In der Folge der amerikanischen und der französischen Revolutionen entstanden hier die ersten modernen Verfassungstexte auf dem amerikanischen Doppelkontinent außerhalb der Vereinigten Staaten, und die Revolution in Haiti von 1791 bis 1804 führte zur Gründung der ersten unabhängigen Nation Lateinamerikas. Die nun aufgelegte Edition berücksichtigt erstmalig alle Verfassungstexte dieser Zeit und erlaubt daher einen einzigartigen Einblick in die frühe Verfassungsgeschichte Haitis.

Die Sammlung berücksichtigt dabei Entwürfe, Verfassungen und Verfassungsänderungen aus drei verschiedenen Zeitabschnitten. Aus der Zeit unmittelbar nach der französischen aber vor der haitianischen Revolution liegen zwei Entwürfe vor. Dem schließen sich Dokumente vielfältigsten Charakters an, deren vorläufiger Endpunkt die republikanische Verfassung von 1816 markiert. Nach einer längeren Phase relativer politischer und konstitutioneller Stabilität waren schließlich die 1840er Jahre erneut von großen politischen Umwälzungen geprägt, die ihren Ausdruck auch in ganz unterschiedlichen Entwürfen und Verfassungen fanden.

Diese Verfassungstexte dokumentieren sowohl Kontinuität als auch Wandel. Neben der Kodifizierung der Prinzipien des modernen Konstitutionalismus nahm dabei die Wahrung der Unabhängigkeit Haitis, zunächst auch gegenüber Frankreich, eine zentrale Position ein. Den individuellen Rechten wurden, jenseits der kategorischen Abschaffung der Sklaverei, ganz unterschiedliche Gewichtungen verliehen, wie auch verschiedene Staatsformen – Republik, Monarchie, Empire – in den Dokumenten dieser Epoche verankert wurden.

Die vorliegende Sammlung berücksichtigt bislang nur schwer zugängliche haitianische Erstausgaben als Editionsgrundlagen. Auf dieser Basis rekonstruierten die Herausgeber des Bandes die authentischen Verfassungstexte. Der Band korrigiert und erweitert damit den bislang zugänglichen Korpus zeitgenössischer französischer Editionen oder die klassischen Sammlungen von Janvier und Pradine. Ebenfalls enthalten ist eine umfassende Einführung in die Verfassungsgeschichte Haitis bis 1849 mit einer in sie eingebetteten Analyse der hier vorgestellten Quellentexte.

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