Michael Walzer - Complex Equality

GRIN Verlag
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Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Politics - Political Theory and the History of Ideas Journal, grade: 1,3 (A), University of Erfurt (Political Science), 1 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: To begin this essay about the theory of the spheres of justice developed by Michael Walzer, I would like to quote the author with a phrase from the Preface of his book "Spheres of Justice": "But we know that money equally distributed at twelve noon of a Sunday will be unequally redistributed before the week is out." (Walzer, 1983: xi) Michael Walzer is a philosopher who wrote his most famous book (from which I just quoted) about distributive justice and equality, he points himself against the egalitarianist philosophic direction that for example John Rawls is representing. Walzer critizes egalitarianism by beginning at a crucial point: Human beings are not equal, they have far less in common than there are differences between them. For him, one question arises out of the following statement: "We are very different and we are also manifestly alike. Now, what (complex) arrangements follow from the difference and the likeliness?" (Walzer, 1983: xii) The big difference in egalitarian and his thinking, Walzer describes as follows: For him, egalitarianism aims at eliminating dominance by forcing human beings to be equal But Walzer thinks that domination does not derive from dominant human beings but that it is mediated by a set of social goods. His claim is then: "We have to understand and control social goods; we do not have to stretch or shrink human beings." (Walzer, 1983: xiii)
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Nov 20, 2003
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Pages
13
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ISBN
9783638231398
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Language
English
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Genres
Political Science / History & Theory
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Communications - Theories, Models, Terms and Definitions, grade: 1,3 (A), University of Erfurt (Communication Science), course: Intercultural Communication, 10 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The main representant of Structuration Theory is Anthony Giddens who developed the idea of structuration in his book “The Constitution of Society” written in 1984. The theory wants to explain the ways in which social systems are produced and reproduced in social interaction. In contrast to other social theories, structuration theory claims to explain the relationship between the micro-societal and the macro-societal level. Giddens says that social life is not only explained by individual actions but can on the other hand neither be explained only by looking on macro-level social force. The central proclamation of structuration theory is that the repetition of individual acts reproduces social structures. This means, individuals act on the micro level in order to accomplish their intentions, but these actions have “unintended consequences of establishing structures that affect our future actions” (Littlejohn, 2002: 152). Like this, human beings can modify these structures by replacing them or reproducing the structures in a different way. Thus, structuration means studying the reproduction of individua l face-to-face interactions on the societal level. The reproductions of the structures is illustrated by Giddens ́ so called “stratification model of the agent”. At first, there is the motivation of the action, the reason why the agent acts. In the rationalization process, the agent adapts his action to his general theoretical understanding of the basis of his activity. Reflexive monitoring of action means that individuals monitor continously and routinely the social and physical contexts of their actions and the actions themselves. But this monitoring cannot prevent that the actions has some unintended consequences. These can modify the structures the action was placed in and then lead to new unacknowledged conditions of the action. These new conditions influence the following actions and like this close the continous circle.
Niccolò Machiavelli's Art of War is one of the world's great classics of military and political theory. Praised by the finest military minds in history and said to have influenced no lesser lights than Frederick the Great and Napoleon, the Art of War is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the history and theory of war in the West—and for readers of The Prince and Discourse on Livy who seek to explore more fully the connection between war and politics in Machiavelli's thought.

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