The committee identifies five interdependent components of mathematical proficiency and describes how students develop this proficiency. With examples and illustrations, the book presents a portrait of mathematics learning:
Research findings on what children know about numbers by the time they arrive in pre-K and the implications for mathematics instruction. Details on the processes by which students acquire mathematical proficiency with whole numbers, rational numbers, and integers, as well as beginning algebra, geometry, measurement, and probability and statistics.
The committee discusses what is known from research about teaching for mathematics proficiency, focusing on the interactions between teachers and students around educational materials and how teachers develop proficiency in teaching mathematics.
Rather than looking to high school geometry as the locus--and all too often, the apex--of geometric reasoning, the contributors to this volume suggest that reasoning about space can and should be successfully integrated with other forms of mathematics, starting at the elementary level and continuing through high school. Reintegrating spatial reasoning into the mathematical mainstream--indeed, placing it at the core of K-12 mathematics environments that promote learning with understanding--will mean increased attention to problems in modeling, structure, and design and reinvigoration of traditional topics such as measure, dimension, and form. Further, the editors' position is that the teaching of geometry and spatial visualization in school should not be compressed into a characterization of Greek geometry, but should include attention to contributions to the mathematics of space that developed subsequent to those of the Greeks.
This volume is essential reading for those involved in mathematics education at all levels, including university faculty, researchers, and graduate students.
Not simply an application of cognitive science, however, this book provides a new perspective on mathematics education by examining the nature of mathematical concepts and processes, how and why they are taught, why certain approaches appear more effective than others, and how children might be assisted to become more mathematically powerful. The authors use recent theories of analogy and knowledge representation -- combined with research on teaching practice -- to find ways of helping children form links and correspondences between different concepts, so as to overcome problems associated with fragmented knowledge. In so doing, they have capitalized on new insights into the values and limitations of using concrete teaching aids which can be analyzed in terms of analogy theory.
In addition to addressing the role of understanding, the authors have analyzed skill acquisition models in terms of their implications for the development of mathematical competence. They place strong emphasis on the development of students' mathematical reasoning and problem solving skills to promote flexible use of knowledge. The book further demonstrates how children have a number of general problem solving skills at their disposal which they can apply independently to the solution of novel problems, resulting in the enhancement of their mathematical knowledge.
Each chapter provides in-depth discussions, with this volume serving as an invaluable resource for developmental or educational psychology researchers, scholars and students.Contains chapters that highlight some of the most recent research in the area of child development and behaviorPresents a wide array of topics that are discussed in detail
This second edition of Learning and Teaching Early Math remains the definitive, research-based resource to help teachers understand the learning trajectories of early mathematics and become quintessential professionals.
Updates to the new edition include:
• Explicit connections between Learning Trajectories and the new Common Core State Standards.
• New coverage of patterns and patterning.
• Incorporation of hundreds of recent research studies.
The volume is organized into two main parts and an online appendix (http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/conference/). Part One, Major Themes and Recommendations, offers a framework for thinking about pre-kindergarten - grade 2 mathematics education and specific recommendations. Part Two, Elaboration of Major Themes and Recommendations, provides substantive detail regarding young students' understandings of mathematical ideas. Each Part includes five parallel subsections: "Standards in Early Childhood Education"; "Math Standards and Guidelines"; "Curriculum, Learning, Teaching, and Assessment"; "Professional Development"; and "Toward the Future: Implementation and Policy." As a whole the book:
* presents comprehensive summaries of research that provide specific guidelines for standards, curriculum, and teaching;
* takes the recent reports and recommendations for early childhood mathematics education to the next level;
* integrates practical details and research throughout; and
* provides a succinct, but thorough review of research on the topics, sequences, and learning trajectories that children can and should learn at each of their first years of life, with specific developmental guidelines that suggest appropriate content for each topic for each year from 2-year-olds to 7-year-olds.
This is an indispensable volume for mathematics educators, researchers, curriculum developers, teachers and policymakers, including those who create standards, scope and sequences, and curricula for young children and professional teacher development materials, and students in mathematics education, early childhood trainers, teacher educators, and faculty in mathematics education.