Nobel Lectures In Physics (2006-2010)

World Scientific
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This volume is a collection of the Nobel lectures delivered by the prizewinners, together with their biographies and the presentation speeches by Nobel Committee members for the period 2006-2010. The criterion for the Physics award is to the discoverer of a physical phenomenon that changed our views, or to the inventor of a new physical process that gave enormous benefits to either science at large or to the public. The biographies are remarkably interesting to read and the Nobel lectures provide detailed explanations of the phenomena for which the Laureates were awarded the Nobel Prize.Aspiring young scientists as well as more experienced ones, but also the interested public will learn a lot from and appreciate the geniuses of these narrations.List of prizewinners and their discoveries:(2006) to John C Mather and George F Smoot “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”
The very detailed observations that the Laureates have carried out from the COBE satellite have played a major role in the development of modern cosmology into a precise science.(2007) to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg “for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”
Applications of this phenomenon have revolutionized techniques for retrieving data from hard disks. The discovery also plays a major role in various magnetic sensors as well as for the development of a new generation of electronics. The use of Giant Magnetoresistance can be regarded as one of the first major applications of nanotechnology.(2008) to Yoichiro Nambu “for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics“, and to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa “for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”
Why is there something instead of nothing? Why are there so many different elementary particles? The Laureates presented theoretical insights that give us a deeper understanding of what happens far inside the tiniest building blocks of matter.(2009) to Charles Kuen Kao “for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication“, and to Willard S Boyle and George E Smith “for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit — the CCD sensor”
Kao's discoveries have paved the way for optical fiber technology, which today is used for almost all telephony and data communication. Boyle and Smith have invented a digital image sensor — CCD, or charge-coupled device — which today has become an electronic eye in almost all areas of photography.(2010) to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”
The Laureates have shown that a thin flake of ordinary carbon, just one atom thick, has exceptional properties that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics.
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Publisher
World Scientific
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Published on
Jun 2, 2014
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Pages
384
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ISBN
9789814612708
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Biography & Autobiography / Science & Technology
Science / History
Science / Physics / General
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Stanley Mandelstam (1928–2016) was one of the most influential and respected particle theorists. Coming as a young chemical engineer from South Africa to study theoretical physics in England, he quickly became a leading physicist in his field. With his deep understanding of quantum field theory, he pioneered the development of the analytic S-matrix theory as well as the path-dependent formulations for quantum gauge theories and for quantum general relativity. They are being actively used for the electroweak theory and having their imprints in lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity. Also he elucidated the mechanisms for quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics, constructed non-perturbative bosonization methods in 1+1 dimensions, and proved the perturbative finiteness and β=0 of N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. His work also led to the discovery of dual resonance models, which in turn became superstring theory. He was a leader in these developments, devoting much of his later years to the proof that the theory is perturbatively finite so it can be considered as a contender for the theory of quantum gravity.

He was also a very modest and friendly man, impressing everyone with his sharp intellect as well as his humanity. This volume contains essays written by many of his friends and students, including both detailed reports on his scientific achievements as well as personal reminiscences. Also collected in the volume are some selected reprints of Mandelstam's early seminal papers and abstracts of selected papers representing the full spectrum of his contributions.

Contents: Recollections of Stanley Mandelstam (Geoffrey Chew)Scientific Biography of Stanley Mandelstam: 1955–1980 (Charles B Thorn)Scientific Biography of Stanley Mandelstam: 1981–2016 (Nathan Berkovits)Stanley Mandelstam: Brief Biography and Selected Publications with Commentary (Ling-Lie Chau)Stanley Mandelstam: The Early Years at a 'Most Stimulating Theoretical Group' (Sabine Lee)The Guiding Influence of Stanley Mandelstam, from S-Matrix Theory to String Theory (Peter Goddard)Remembering Stanley: From a Source of Inspiration to a Fair Strong Competitor (G Veneziano)Stanley Mandelstam and Me and Life on the Light-cone (Lars Brink)Reminiscences of Stanley Mandelstam (John H Schwarz)Stanley Mandelstam and My Postdoctoral Years at Berkeley (Steven Frautschi)Reminiscences on Stanley Mandelstam (Korkut Bardakci)Remembering a Gentle Giant of Physics (Charles Sommerfield)Grad School with Stanley Mandelstam (Joseph Polchinski)Remembering a Gentle Giant of Physics (Mary K Gaillard)Mandelstam & NAL (Pierre Ramond)The Influence of Stanley Mandelstam (Michael B Green)My Interaction with Stanley Mandelstam (Paolo Di Vecchia)My Advisor Stanley (Sang-Jin Sin)Stanley Mandelstam My Graduate Supervisor (Arjun Berera)Reprints and Abstracts of Selected Publications: The Mandelstam Representations in the Mandelstam Variables for S-Matrices: Determination of the Pion-Nucleon Scattering Amplitude from Dispersion Relations and Unitarity. General TheoryAnalytic Properties of Transition Amplitudes in Perturbation TheoryTwo-Dimensional Representations of Scattering Amplitudes and Their ApplicationsThe S-Matrix Approach: Theory of Low-Energy Pion–Pion InteractionsDispersion Relations in Strong-Coupling PhysicsThe Mandelstam Path-Field Formulation for Quantum Gauge Theories and Feynman Rules: Quantum Electrodynamics Without Poten
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