Cosmic Rays in Magnetospheres of the Earth and other Planets

Springer Science & Business Media
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The problem of cosmic ray (CR) geomagnetic effects came to the fore at the beg- ning of the 1930s after the famous expeditions by J. Clay onboard ship (Slamat) between the Netherlands and Java using an ionization chamber. Many CR la- tude expeditions were organized by the famous scientists and Nobel Laureates R. Millikan and A. Compton. From the obtained latitude curves it follows that CRs cannot be gamma rays (as many scientists thought at that time), but must be charged particles. From measurements of azimuthally geomagnetic effect at that time it also followed that these charged particles must be mostly positive (see Chapter 1, and for more details on the history of the problem see monographs of Irina Dorman, M1981, M1989). The ?rst explanations of obtained results were based on the simple dipole - proximation of the geomagnetic ?eld and the theory of energetic charged particles moving in dipole magnetic ?elds, developed in 1907 by C. Stormer ̈ to explain the aurora phenomenon. Let us note that it was made about 5 years before V. Hess discovered CRs, and received the Nobel Prize in 1936 together with K. Anderson (for the discovery of CR and positrons in CR).
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Springer Science & Business Media
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Jan 20, 2009
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Science / Physics / Astrophysics
Science / Physics / General
Science / Physics / Geophysics
Science / Physics / Nuclear
Technology & Engineering / Aeronautics & Astronautics
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A good deal of our information on solar physics and on solar phenomena is derived from the solar spectrum. A quantitative interpretation of this spectrum was only possible after 1920, after the establishment of Bohr's atomic model, the discovery of Saha's law, and the development of spectrophotometry. The resolving and light gathering powers of our instruments have greatly increased since. We have seen an enormous progress in our theoretical under standing of basic atomic phenomena, and of the intricate problems concerned with the transfer of energy through a complicated structure like the sun's outer layers. In particular the observable part of the solar spectrum tremen dously enlarged since the introduction, in the years after 1945, of radio astronomy, enabling us to study the solar spectrum between wavelengths of some mm to about 15 m, of space research, giving access to the whole electro magnetic spectrum below 3000 A, down to about 0. 01 A. Further, the low and high energetic components of the solar particles spectrum have been dis covered with space probes (the solar wind), rockets, balloons (the so-called sub cosmic-ray particles) and cosmic ray monitors (solar cosmic ray bursts). The extreme wealth of this spectrum, much vaster in extent than the earlier investigators could only dream of, is an important source of information. It looked appropriate to us, after the rapid development of this branch of science,' to invite the world's leading solar physicists to Utrecht for a summa rizing symposium on the whole solar spectrum.
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