Algorithms for Synthesis and Testing of Asynchronous Circuits

The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science

Book 232
Springer Science & Business Media
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Since the second half of the 1980s asynchronous circuits have been the subject of a great deal of research following a period of relative oblivion. The lack of interest in asynchronous techniques was motivated by the progressive shift towards synchronous design techniques that had much more structure and were much easier to verify and synthesize. System design requirements made it impossible to eliminate totally the use of asynchronous circuits. Given the objective difficulty encountered by designers, the asynchronous components of electronic systems such as interfaces became a serious bottleneck in the design process. The use of new models and some theoretical breakthroughs made it possible to develop asynchronous design techniques that were reliable and effective. This book describes a variety of mathematical models and of algorithms that form the backbone and the body of a new design methodology for asyn chronous design. The book is intended for asynchronous hardware designers, for computer-aided tool experts, and for digital designers interested in ex ploring the possibility of designing asynchronous circuits. It requires a solid mathematical background in discrete event systems and algorithms. While the book has not been written as a textbook, nevertheless it could be used as a reference book in an advanced course in logic synthesis or asynchronous design.
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Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Computers / CAD-CAM
Technology & Engineering / Electrical
Technology & Engineering / Electronics / Circuits / General
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Multiprocessing: Trade-Offs in Computation and Communication presents an in-depth analysis of several commonly observed regular and irregular computations for multiprocessor systems. This book includes techniques which enable researchers and application developers to quantitatively determine the effects of algorithm data dependencies on execution time, on communication requirements, on processor utilization and on the speedups possible.
Starting with simple, two-dimensional, diamond-shaped directed acyclic graphs, the analysis is extended to more complex and higher dimensional directed acyclic graphs. The analysis allows for the quantification of the computation and communication costs and their interdependencies. The practical significance of these results on the performance of various data distribution schemes is clearly explained. Using these results, the performance of the parallel computations are formulated in an architecture independent fashion. These formulations allow for the parameterization of the architecture specitific entities such as the computation and communication rates. This type of parameterized performance analysis can be used at compile time or at run-time so as to achieve the most optimal distribution of the computations.
The material in Multiprocessing: Trade-Offs in Computation and Communication connects theory with practice, so that the inherent performance limitations in many computations can be understood, and practical methods can be devised that would assist in the development of software for scalable high performance systems.
This book was motivated by the problems being faced with shrinking IC process feature sizes. It is well known that as process feature sizes shrink, a host of electrical problems like cross-talk, electromigration, self-heat, etc. are becoming important. Cross-talk is one of the major problems since it results in unpredictable design behavior. In particular, it can result in significant delay variation or signal integrity problems in a wire, depending on the state of its neighboring wires. Typical approaches to tackle the cross-talk problem attempt to fix the problem once it is created. In our approach, we ensure that cross-talk is eliminated by design. The work described in this book attempts to take an "outside-the-box" view and propose a radically different design style. This design style first imposes a fixed layout pattern (or fabric) on the integrated circuit, and then embeds the circuit being implemented into this fabric. The fabric is chosen carefully in order to eliminate the cross-talk problem being faced in modem IC processes. With our choice of fabric, cross-talk between adjacent wires on an IC is reduced by between one and two orders of magnitude. In this way, the fabric concept eliminates cross-talk up-front, and by design. We propose two separate design flows, each of which uses the fabric concept to implement logic. The first flow uses fabric-compliant standard cells as an im plementation vehicle. We call these cells fabric cells, and they have the same logic functionality as existing standard cells with which they are compared.
"This is teaching at its best!"

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Want to learn the fundamentals of electronics in a fun, hands-on way? With Make: Electronics, you'll start working on real projects as soon as you crack open the book. Explore all of the key components and essential principles through a series of fascinating experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them!

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In high speed communications and signal processing applications, random electrical noise that emanates from devices has a direct impact on critical high level specifications, for instance, system bit error rate or signal to noise ratio. Hence, predicting noise in RF systems at the design stage is extremely important. Additionally, with the growing complexity of modern RF systems, a flat transistor-level noise analysis for the entire system is becoming increasingly difficult. Hence accurate modelling at the component level and behavioural level simulation techniques are also becoming increasingly important. In this book, we concentrate on developing noise simulation techniques for RF circuits.
The difference between our approach of performing noise analysis for RF circuits and the traditional techniques is that we first concentrate on the noise analysis for oscillators instead of non-oscillatory circuits. As a first step, we develop a new quantitative description of the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in presence of deterministic perturbations. Unlike previous such attempts, this description is not limited to two-dimensional system of equations and does not make any assumptions about the type of nonlinearity. By considering stochastic perturbations in a stochastic differential calculus setting, we obtain a correct mathematical characterization of the noisy oscillator output. We present efficient numerical techniques both in time domain and in frequency domain for computing the phase noise of oscillators. This approach also determines the relative contribution of the device noise sources to phase noise, which is very useful for oscillator design.
This new way of characterizing the oscillator output has a far-reaching impact on the noise analysis methodology for nonautonomous circuits, which we also investigate. We also use the perturbation analysis results of oscillators to derive the phase noise of phase feedback systems such as phase-locked loops. We formulate the problem as a stochastic differential equation and is solved in presence of circuit white noise sources yielding the spectrum of the PLI output.
Noise Analysis of Radio Frequency Circuits is written for circuit designers and will be of particular interest to RF circuit designers.
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