PrPC is predominant in α-helices but PrPSc are rich in β-sheets in the form as amyloid fibrils; so very amenable to be studied by MD techniques. Through MD, studies on the protein structures and the structural conversion are very important for revealing secrets of prion diseases and for structure-based drug design or discovery. Rabbits, dogs, horses and buffaloes are reported to be the few low susceptibility species to prion diseases; this book's MD studies on these species are clearly helpful to understand the mechanism underlying the resistance to prion diseases. PrP(1-120) usually has no clear molecular structures; this book also studies this unstructured region through MD and especially MM techniques from the global optimization point of view.
This book is ideal for practitioners in computing of biophysics, biochemistry, biomedicine, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, materials science and engineering, applied mathematics and theoretical physics, information technology, operations research, biostatistics, etc. As an accessible introduction to these fields, this book is also ideal as a teaching material for students.
The book is split into two broad sections, the first covering methods to generate or infer protein structure, the second dealing with structure-based function annotation. Each chapter is written by world experts in the field. The first section covers methods ranging from traditional homology modelling and fold recognition to fragment-based ab initio methods, and includes a chapter, new for the second edition, on structure prediction using evolutionary covariance. Membrane proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins are each assigned chapters, while two new chapters deal with amyloid structures and means to predict modes of protein-protein interaction. The second section includes chapters covering functional diversity within protein folds and means to assign function based on surface properties and recurring motifs. Further chapters cover the key roles of protein dynamics in protein function and use of automated servers for function inference. The book concludes with two chapters covering case studies of structure prediction, based respectively on crystal structures and protein models, providing numerous examples of real-world usage of the methods mentioned previously.
This book is targeted at postgraduate students and academic researchers. It is most obviously of interest to protein bioinformaticians and structural biologists, but should also serve as a guide to biologists more broadly by highlighting the insights that structural bioinformatics can provide into proteins of their interest.
Frequently, PCR technicians and specialists limit their understanding of PCR to one particular methodology. However, this approach limits their appreciation of the range of versatile PCR techniques currently available, techniques that may be applicable and indeed more suitable to their own laboratory situation.
This manual aims to provide the reader with a guide to the standard PCR technique and its many available modifications, with particular emphasis on the role of PCR techniques in the diagnostic laboratory (the central theme of this manual). Further, many important technical issues have been addressed, including types of PCR template material, PCR optimization, the analysis of PCR products, quality control and quality assurance, variants and adaptations of the standard PCR protocol, quantitative PCR and in situ PCR. The reader of this manual will be excellently informed about the fundamental principles of PCR and the true potential of PCR within clinical laboratory practice.
2. Innovative media products for the 21st century biopharmaceutical industry.
3. The impact of high titre media feed-streams on monoclonal antibody purification.
4. Advances in genomics and proteomics.
5. Stem Cell Technology: new developments and clinical applications.