Genetic association studies have in the last few years substantially enhanced our understanding of factors underlying traits of high medical importance, such as body mass index, lipid levels, blood pressure and many others. There is growing empirical evidence that low-frequency and rare variants play an important role in complex human phenotypes. This book covers multiple aspects of study design, analysis and interpretation for complex trait studies focusing on rare sequence variation. In many areas of genomic research, including complex trait association studies, technology is in danger of outstripping our capacity to analyse and interpret the vast amounts of data generated. The field of statistical genetics in the whole-genome sequencing era is still in its infancy, but powerful methods toanalyse the aggregation of low-frequency and rare variants are now starting to emerge.
Design and Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies provides a compendium of well-established statistical methods based upon single SNP associations. It also provides an introduction to more advanced statistical methods and issues. Knowing that technology, for instance large scale SNP arrays, is quickly changing, this text has significant lessons for future use with sequencing data. Emphasis on statistical concepts that apply to the problem of finding disease associations irrespective of the technology ensures its future applications. The author includes current bioinformatics tools while outlining the tools that will be required for use with extensive databases from future large scale sequencing projects. The author includes current bioinformatics tools while outlining additional issues and needs arising from the extensive databases from future large scale sequencing projects.
Despite all of the elaborate mechanisms that a cell employs to handle its DNA with the utmost care, a newborn human carries about 100 new mutations, originated in their parents, about 10 of which are deleterious. A mutation replacing just one of the more than three billion nucleotides in the human genome may lead to synthesis of a dysfunctional protein, and this can be inconsistent with life or cause a tragic disease. Several percent of even young people suffer from diseases that are caused, exclusively or primarily, by preï¿1⁄2]existing and new mutations in their genomes, including both a wide variety of genetically simple Mendelian diseases and diverse complex diseases such as birth anomalies, diabetes, and schizophrenia. Milder, but still substantial, negative effects of mutations are even more pervasive. As of now, we possess no means of reducing the rate at which mutations appear spontaneously. However, the recent flood of genomic data made possible by next-generation methods of DNA sequencing, enabled scientists to explore the impacts of deleterious mutations on humans with previously unattainable precision and begin to develop approaches to managing them.
Written by a leading researcher in the field of evolutionary genetics, Crumbling Genome reviews the current state of knowledge about deleterious mutations and their effects on humans for those in the biological sciences and medicine, as well as for readers with only a general scientific literacy and an interest in human genetics.Provides an extensive introduction to the fundamentals of evolutionary genetics with an emphasis on mutation and selection Discusses the effects of pre-existing and new mutations on human genotypes and phenotypes Provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge in the field and considers crucial unsolved problems Explores key ethical, scientific, and social issues likely to become relevant in the near future as the modification of human germline genotypes becomes technically feasible
Crumbling Genome is must-reading for students and professionals in human genetics, genomics, bioinformatics, evolutionary biology, and biological anthropology. It is certain to have great appeal among all those with an interest in the links between genetics and evolution and how they are likely to influence the future of human health, medicine, and society.
This textbook provides graduate students with a working knowledge of genetic epidemiology research methods. Following an overview of the field, the book reviews key genetic concepts, provides an update on relevant genomic technology, including genome-wide chips and DNA sequencing, and describes methods for assessing the magnitude of genetic influences on diseases and risk factors. The book focuses on research study designs for discovering disease susceptibility genes, including family-based linkage analysis, candidate gene and genome-side association studies, assessing gene-environment interactions and epistasis, studies of Non-Mendelian inheritance, and statistical analyses of data from these studies. Specific applications of each research method are illustrated using a variety of diseases and risk factors relevant to public health, and useful web-based genetic analysis software, human reference panels, and repositories, that can greatly facilitate this work, are described.