Alexander II, Alexander III, and the last tsar—the ill-fated Nicholas II—each attempted to forestall the forces of revolution. This eyewitness history is based on exclusive access to the original manuscript memoirs of Count Loris-Melikov, Tsar Alexander II's chief minister, and by the author's personal experience in Tsar Nicholas II's government as Secretary-in-Chief of the Duma.
Appendix: Interview with Count Leo Tolstoy
Edited and with an introduction by Irene Vartanoff
Michael N. Kalantar, L.L.D., was a graduate of the University of St. Petersburg, Heidelberg University, and the Sorbonne. He was secretary-in-chief of Tsar Nicholas II's Imperial Senate, the Duma.