Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

Springer Science & Business Media
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The increased emphasis on food safety during the past two decades has decreased the emphasis on the loss of food through spoilage, particularly in developed co- tries where food is more abundant. In these countries spoilage is a commercial issue that affects the pro?t or loss of producers and manufacturers. In lesser developed countries spoilage continues to be a major concern. The amount of food lost to spoilage is not known. As will be evident in this text, stability and the type of spoilage are in?uenced by the inherent properties of the food and many other factors. During the Second World War a major effort was given to developing the te- nologies needed to ship foods to different regions of the world without spoilage. The food was essential to the military and to populations in countries that could not provide for themselves. Since then, progress has been made in improved product formulations, processing, packaging, and distribution systems. New products have continued to evolve, but for many new perishable foods product stability continues to be a limiting factor. Many new products have failed to reach the marketplace because of spoilage issues.
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About the author

MICHAEL P. DOYLE, PhD, was D. R. Semmes Professor of Chemistry at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, and is currently Professor of Chemistry at the University of Arizona in Tucson. M.
ANTHONY McKERVEY, PhD, is Professor of Chemistry and Director of QUCHEM at Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland. TAO YE, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Nottingham in Great Britain.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Sep 23, 2009
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Pages
369
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ISBN
9781441908261
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / General
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
Technology & Engineering / Food Science
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment provides proven approaches and suggestions for finding sources of microbiological contamination of industrially produced products.

Industrial food safety professionals find themselves responsible for locating and eliminating the source(s) of food contamination. These are often complex situations for which they have not been adequately prepared. This book is written with them, the in-plant food safety/quality assurance professional, in mind. However, other professionals will also benefit including plant managers, regulatory field investigators, technical food safety policy makers, college instructors, and students of food science and microbiology.

A survey of the personal and societal costs of microbial contamination of food is followed by a wide range of respected authors who describe selected bacterial pathogens, emerging pathogens, spoilage organisms and their significance to the industry and consumer. Dr. Kornacki then provides real life examples of in-plant risk areas / practices (depicted with photographs taken from a wide variety of food processing facilities). Factors influencing microbial growth, survival and death area also described. The reader will find herein a practical framework for troubleshooting and for assessing the potential for product contamination in their own facilities, as well as suggestions for conducting their own in-plant investigations. Selected tools for testing the environment and statistical approaches to testing ingredients and finished product are also described. The book provides suggestions for starting up after a processing line (or lines) have been shut down due to a contamination risk. The authors conclude with an overview of molecular subtyping and its value with regard to in-plant investigations.

Numerous nationally recognized authors in the field have contributed to the book. The editor, Dr. Jeffery L. Kornacki, is President and Senior Technical Director of the consulting firm, Kornacki Microbiology Solutions in Madison, Wisconsin. He is also Adjunct Faculty with the Department of Food Science at the University of Georgia and also with the National Food Safety & Toxicology Center at Michigan State University.

Low water activity (aw) and dried foods such as dried dairy and meat products, grain-based and dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, peanut and nut pastes, as well as flours and meals have increasingly been associated with product recalls and foodborne outbreaks due to contamination by pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. In particular, recent foodborne outbreaks and product recalls related to Salmonella-contaminated spices have raised the level of public health concern for spices as agents of foodborne illnesses. Presently, most spices are grown outside the U.S., mainly in 8 countries: India, Indonesia, China, Brazil, Peru, Madagascar, Mexico and Vietnam. Many of these countries are under-developed and spices are harvested and stored with little heed to sanitation. The FDA has regulatory oversight of spices in the United States; however, the agency’s control is largely limited to enforcing regulatory compliance through sampling and testing only after imported foodstuffs have crossed the U.S. border. Unfortunately, statistical sampling plans are inefficient tools for ensuring total food safety. As a result, the development and use of decontamination treatments is key.

This book provides an understanding of the microbial challenges to the safety of low aw foods, and a historic backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw foods as vehicles for foodborne pathogens. Up-to-date facts and figures of foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are included. Special attention is given to the uncanny ability of Salmonella to persist under dry conditions in food processing plants and foods. A section is dedicated specifically to processing plant investigations, providing practical approaches to determining sources of persistent bacterial strains in the industrial food processing environment. Readers are guided through dry cleaning, wet cleaning and alternatives to processing plant hygiene and sanitation. Separate chapters are devoted to low aw food commodities of interest including spices, dried dairy-based products, low aw meat products, dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, nuts and nut pastes, flours and meals, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and pet foods. The book provides regulatory testing guidelines and recommendations as well as guidance through methodological and sampling challenges to testing spices and low aw foods for the presence of foodborne pathogens. Chapters also address decontamination processes for low aw foods, including heat, steam, irradiation, microwave, and alternative energy-based treatments.

Presents the most innovative results in carbene chemistry,setting the foundation for new discoveries and applications

The discovery of stable carbenes has reinvigorated carbenechemistry research, with investigators seeking to develop carbenesinto new useful catalysts and ligands. Presenting the mostinnovative and promising areas of carbene research over the pastdecade, this book explores newly discovered structural, catalytic,and organometallic aspects of carbene chemistry, with an emphasison new and emerging synthetic applications.

Contemporary Carbene Chemistry features contributionsfrom an international team of pioneering carbene chemistryresearchers. Collectively, these authors have highlighted the mostinteresting and promising areas of investigation in the field. Thebook is divided into two parts:

Part 1, Properties and Reactions of Carbenes, exploresnew findings on carbene stability, acid-base behavior, andcatalysis. Carbenic structure and reactivity are examined inchapters dedicated to stable carbenes, carbodicarbenes, carbenes asguests in supramolecular hosts, tunneling in carbene and oxacarbenereactions, and ultrafast kinetics of carbenes and their excitedstate precursors. Theoretical concerns are addressed in chapters oncomputational methods and dynamics applied to carbenereactions.Part 2, Metal Carbenes, is dedicated to the syntheticdimensions of carbenes, particularly the reactions and catalyticproperties of metal carbenes. The authors discuss lithium, rhodium,ruthenium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and gold.

All the chapters conclude with a summary of the currentsituation, new challenges on the horizon, and promising newresearch directions. A list of key reviews and suggestions forfurther reading also accompanies every chapter.

Each volume of the Wiley Series on Reactive Intermediates inChemistry and Biology focuses on a specific reactive intermediate,offering a broad range of perspectives from leading experts thatsets the stage for new applications and further discoveries.

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