Toulouse-Lautrec

Parkstone International
1
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Toulouse-Lautrec begann noch während seines Studiums das Pariser Nachtleben zu erkunden; es sollte ihm zur wichtigsten Quelle der Inspiration werden und schließlich auch zur Beeinträchtigung seiner Gesundheit führen. Das Paris der 1890er Jahre mit seinen schillernden Charakteren kann man nur durch die Augen Lautrecs wahrnehmen. Die erste bedeutende Persönlichkeit des Pariser Nachtlebens, der Lautrec begegnete, war der berühmte Cabaretsänger Aristide Bruant (1851 bis 1925), ein Mann, der Lautrec ganz wesentlich darin unterstützte, seine eigene künstlerische Vision zu entwickeln. In den 1890er Jahren inspirierten Lautrec zahlreiche Bühnenkünstler: die auf dem berühmten Plakat des Moulin Rouge zu sehenden Tänzerinnen La Goulue und Jane Avril oder Loïe Fuller, die Sängerinnen May Belfort, Yvette Guilbert und Marcelle Lender sowie die Schauspielerin Réjane. Lautrecs Aufrichtigkeit, mit der er viele Aspekte des Lebens abbildete, die die meisten seiner höher geachteten Zeitgenossen lieber unter den Teppich kehrten, erregte erwartungsgemäß Anstoß. Der deutsche Kunstkritiker Gensel schrieb: “Von Verehrung kann natürlich bei diesem Meister in der Darstellung alles Gemeinen und Perversen von vornherein nicht die Rede sein. Dass man Schweinereien – es gibt keinen milderen Ausdruck dafür – wie Elles öffentlich ausstellen darf, ohne einen Schrei der Entrüstung zu hören, erklärt sich nur daraus, dass ein Teil des großen Publikums den Sinn dieses Zyklus gar nicht versteht und ein anderer sich schämt, sein Verständnis einzugestehen!”
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Additional Information

Publisher
Parkstone International
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Published on
Dec 22, 2011
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Pages
80
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ISBN
9781781607350
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Language
German
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Genres
Art / European
Art / General
Art / History / Modern (late 19th Century to 1945)
Art / Individual Artists / Monographs
Art / Techniques / Painting
Art / Techniques / Printmaking
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Nathalia Brodskaya
Cézannes glücklichste Zeit war seine frühe Jugend in der Provence, wo er zusammen mit Zola und einem anderen Freund in der Natur umherstreifte. Ermutigt durch Renoir, stellte er 1874 und 1877 zusammen mit den Impressionisten aus. Doch die ablehnende Haltung, mit der man seiner Kunst begegnete, verletzte ihn tief. Er malte gern Früchte, weil sie gehorsame Modelle waren, was seiner langsamen Arbeitsweise entgegenkam, dabei behielt er die dominante Farbe und den Charakter der Frucht bei, verstärkte aber den emotionalen Reiz der Form durch ein Spiel von reichen, fein aufeinander abgestimmten Farbwerten. Seine eigentliche Meisterschaft entfaltete er in den Stillleben. Cézanne verstand es, seine Malkunst mit Wissen zu bereichern, dem Wissen um die Dinge – dieser unabdingbaren Voraussetzung für alles schöpferische Bemühen. Kurz nach dem Tod seines Vaters zog er sich für immer auf sein Gut in der Provence zurück und war vermutlich dort der einsamste Maler seiner Zeit. Von Zeit zu Zeit überfiel ihn eine seltsame Melancholie, ja sogar eine düstere Hoffnungslosigkeit. Er konnte unberechenbar und schwierig sein, seine Leinwände zerstören oder sie zum Fenster seines Studios hinauswerfen, sie ganz einfach auf einer Wiese stehen lassen oder sie seinem Sohn geben, der sie zerschnitt und wie ein Puzzle wieder zusammensetzte. Zu Beginn des neuen Jahrhunderts holten die Bauern aus ihren Scheunen eine größere Menge von Stillleben und Landschaften, als sie hörten, dass ein Narr aus Paris dafür mit gutem Geld zahlte. Doch leider kam die Anerkennung zu spät. Er starb 1906 an einem Fieber, das er sich zugezogen hatte, als er beim Malen vom Regen überrascht wurde.
Nathalia Brodskaya
For Claude Monet the designation ‘impressionist’ always remained a source of pride. In spite of all the things critics have written about his work, Monet continued to be a true impressionist to the end of his very long life. He was so by deep conviction, and for his Impressionism he may have sacrificed many other opportunities that his enormous talent held out to him. Monet did not paint classical compositions with figures, and he did not become a portraitist, although his professional training included those skills. He chose a single genre for himself, landscape painting, and in that he achieved a degree of perfection none of his contemporaries managed to attain. Yet the little boy began by drawing caricatures. Boudin advised Monet to stop doing caricatures and to take up landscapes instead. The sea, the sky, animals, people, and trees are beautiful in the exact state in which nature created them – surrounded by air and light. Indeed, it was Boudin who passed on to Monet his conviction of the importance of working in the open air, which Monet would in turn transmit to his impressionist friends. Monet did not want to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He chose to attend a private school, L’Académie Suisse, established by an ex-model on the Quai d’Orfèvres near the Pont Saint-Michel. One could draw and paint from a live model there for a modest fee. This was where Monet met the future impressionist Camille Pissarro. Later in Gleyre’s studio, Monet met Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille. Monet considered it very important that Boudin be introduced to his new friends. He also told his friends of another painter he had found in Normandy. This was the remarkable Dutchman Jongkind. His landscapes were saturated with colour, and their sincerity, at times even their naïveté, was combined with subtle observation of the Normandy shore’s variable nature. At this time Monet’s landscapes were not yet characterized by great richness of colour. Rather, they recalled the tonalities of paintings by the Barbizon artists, and Boudin’s seascapes. He composed a range of colour based on yellow-brown or blue-grey. At the Third Impressionist Exhibition in 1877 Monet presented a series of paintings for the first time: seven views of the Saint-Lazare train station. He selected them from among twelve he had painted at the station. This motif in Monet’s work is in line not only with Manet’s Chemin de fer (The Railway) and with his own landscapes featuring trains and stations at Argenteuil, but also with a trend that surfaced after the railways first began to appear. In 1883, Monet had bought a house in the village of Giverny, near the little town of Vernon. At Giverny, series painting became one of his chief working procedures. Meadows became his permanent workplace. When a journalist, who had come from Vétheuil to interview Monet, asked him where his studio was, the painter answered, “My studio! I’ve never had a studio, and I can’t see why one would lock oneself up in a room. To draw, yes – to paint, no”. Then, broadly gesturing towards the Seine, the hills, and the silhouette of the little town, he declared, “There’s my real studio.”Monet began to go to London in the last decade of the nineteenth century. He began all his London paintings working directly from nature, but completed many of them afterwards, at Giverny. The series formed an indivisible whole, and the painter had to work on all his canvases at one time. A friend of Monet’s, the writer Octave Mirbeau, wrote that he had accomplished a miracle. With the help of colours he had succeeded in recreating on the canvas something almost impossible to capture: he was reproducing sunlight, enriching it with an infinite number of reflections. Alone among the impressionists, Claude Monet took an almost scientific study of the possibilities of colour to its limits; it is unlikely that one could have gone any further in that direction.
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