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There is little dispute within the scientific community that humans are changing Earth's climate on a decadal to century time-scale. By the end of this century, without a reduction in emissions, atmospheric CO2 is projected to increase to levels that Earth has not experienced for more than 30 million years. As greenhouse gas emissions propel Earth toward a warmer climate state, an improved understanding of climate dynamics in warm environments is needed to inform public policy decisions. In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Understanding Earth's Deep Past provides an assessment of both the demonstrated and underdeveloped potential of the deep-time geologic record to inform us about the dynamics of the global climate system. The report describes past climate changes, and discusses potential impacts of high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases on regional climates, water resources, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and the cycling of life-sustaining elements. While revealing gaps in scientific knowledge of past climate states, the report highlights a range of high priority research issues with potential for major advances in the scientific understanding of climate processes. This proposed integrated, deep-time climate research program would study how climate responded over Earth's different climate states, examine how climate responds to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and clarify the processes that lead to anomalously warm polar and tropical regions and the impact on marine and terrestrial life.

In addition to outlining a research agenda, Understanding Earth's Deep Past proposes an implementation strategy that will be an invaluable resource to decision-makers in the field, as well as the research community, advocacy organizations, government agencies, and college professors and students.


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Additional Information

Publisher
National Academies Press
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Published on
Aug 2, 2011
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Pages
208
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ISBN
9780309209199
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Earth Sciences / Meteorology & Climatology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM free.
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Whilst there is now overwhelming evidence that greenhouse-gas pollution is becoming the dominant process responsible for global warming, it is also clear that the climate system varies quite naturally on different time-scales. Predicting the course of future climate change consequently requires an understanding of the natural variability of the climate system as well as the effects of human-induced change. This book is concerned with our current understanding of natural climate change, its variability on decadal to centennial time-scales, the extent to which climate models of different kinds simulate past variability, and the role of past climate variability in explaining changes to natural ecosystems and to human society over the later part of the Holocene. The book highlights the need to improve not only our understanding of the physical system through time but also to improve our knowledge of how people may have influenced the climate system in the past and have been influenced by it, both directly and indirectly.

This ground-breaking text addresses predictable modification in the climate system in the context of global warming. Ideal for researchers and advanced students, it explores current thinking on natural climate change.

Addresses the natural variability of the climate system in the context of global warming Contributes substantially to the ongoing discussion on global warming Integrates state of the art research and brings together modeling and data communities in a balanced way Considers questions of climate change on different time-scales

“Natural climate variability and global warming is clearly an important book, well-focused and distinctive, with fundamental things to say about Holocene science and its interface with the practical problem of global warming. It is an authoritative, up-to-date summary and synthesis of current knowledge in this area and is attractively produced with clear, colour illustrations throughout. It is a ‘must’ for all university libraries and our private book collections.” The Holocene, 2009.

WANT ACCESS TO SOLID SCIENTIFIC FACTS REFUTING THE INCESSANT MEDIA HYPE SURROUNDING CLIMATE CHANGE? THEN THE MYTHOLOGY OF GLOBAL WARMING IS FOR YOU!

The climate activists in charge of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were dumbfounded. Their own temperature data as well as satellite results had been showing that the climate had been stable or cooling since 1998. Even worse, the climate was cooling while CO2 levels continued to rise. The recent climate was not being politically correct.
It was time to resort to the strategy that progressives always use in times of crisis: if you don’t like the facts, throw them out and make up your own. Since December of 2015, the web sites of both NOAA and NASA have simply eliminated what they had been calling a ‘pause’ in global warming. They have taken their data behind a dark curtain for ‘editing’ and ‘reanalysis’ . . . and viola. Climate data suddenly show that the Earth’s temperature has increased by 1oC in just the last few years. This falsification of government climate data has not gone unnoticed...

The Mythology of Global Warming is intended to provide the general public with a broad spectrum of scientific and factual information on the subject of Climate Change. This book debunks the incessant, emotional, and largely unsubstantiated claims made by the progressive media and climate scientists that industrial societies such as the United States are destroying our planet due to the use of fossil fuels. What causes global warming? What is a greenhouse gas? What impact do carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels actually have on the Earth’s climate relative to naturally occurring phenomena? Is all ice on Earth really melting, and are sea levels rising at a catastrophic rate? Are all forms of extreme weather, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and droughts increasing dramatically? Are polar bears and other life forms being pushed to the brink of extinction? Will all of this mayhem cease if fossil fuels are replaced by ‘green’ renewable energy sources? Answers to these questions clearly show that hard facts do not support any of the above dire predictions.

The science of global warming is indeed ‘settled’; Global Warming is a myth.

“...Global warming proponents can’t prove that man is destroying the planet due to global warming, but Dr. Bunker can prove that we are not. He packs a lot of punch in this small package. Read it, and arm yourself for the great debate.”-—Phil Valentine, nationally syndicated talk show host of the Phil Valentine Show on Westwood One

“In the past 20 years I have reviewed two dozen books dealing with Anthropomorphic Global Warming. There has not been nor ever will be a more comprehensive and understandable book on this subject which is to critical to the entire world’s population.”—Jay Lehr, Ph.D. Science Director, The Heartland Institute

“This is a scholarly work written by a true scientist, yet in a way that makes the topic still accessible to the average person interested in understanding both the science and also the politics of global warming. Highly recommended.”—Dr. Jennifer Marohasy, Senior Fellow, Australia’s Institute of Public Affairs, co-author of “Climate Change: The Facts, 2014”

“Unlike so many others, Dr. Bunker’s book is so much more than a supposition wrapped up in a pretty bow of meaningless numbers. If you’ve been waiting for a book that gives actual facts in an easily checked form, you’ve found it.”—G. Dedrick Robinson Ph.D., co-author of Global Warming: Alarmists, Skeptics & Deniers

“A timely and well researched book not only for the thoughtful engaged reader, but also for the general public. The book is up-to-date and deals honestly with continuing controversies and uncertainties.”—Dr. Sonja A. Boehmer-Christiansen, Department of Geography, Hull University, Former Editor, Energy & Environment.
Historically, climate fluctuations, such as the Little Ice Age, show that interglacial climate chage in not entirely stable, but responds to even subtle changes in radiative forcing. Through research, it has been made clear that even an abrupt change of climate within years is not just a theoretical possibility but has in fact happened in the prehistoric past. It is therefore clear that in principal it could happen again. Human civilaization has exploded under the mild and relatively stable climatic conditions that have prevailed over the last 11,000 years.

This book focuses on revisiting the past and to study climate and environment in a suite of experiments where boundary conditions are similar but not identical to today so we can learn about the climate-environment system, its sensitivity, thresholds and feedback. The palaeoclimate community holds an important key to scientific information on climate change that provides a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The authors of this book have taken up this challenge and summarize their results in this special volume. It presents state-of-the-art science on new reconstructions from all spheres of the Earth System and on their synthesis, on methodological advances, and on the current ability of numerical models to simulate low and high frequency changes of climate, environment, and chemical cycling related to interglacials.

* Summarizes important information on climate change, providing a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for human civilization
* Reports on new reconstuctions on methodological advances, numerical models simulating low and high frequence changes, and chemical cycling related to interglacials
* Incorporates palaeovegetaion and numerical modeling of climate and environmental and geochemical parameters to address regional feedback to global change with successful data-models
The hominin fossil record documents a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens, tools, and culture. The Earth's geological record suggests that some evolutionary events were coincident with substantial changes in African and Eurasian climate, raising the possibility that critical junctures in human evolution and behavioral development may have been affected by the environmental characteristics of the areas where hominins evolved. Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution explores the opportunities of using scientific research to improve our understanding of how climate may have helped shape our species.

Improved climate records for specific regions will be required before it is possible to evaluate how critical resources for hominins, especially water and vegetation, would have been distributed on the landscape during key intervals of hominin history. Existing records contain substantial temporal gaps. The book's initiatives are presented in two major research themes: first, determining the impacts of climate change and climate variability on human evolution and dispersal; and second, integrating climate modeling, environmental records, and biotic responses.

Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution suggests a new scientific program for international climate and human evolution studies that involve an exploration initiative to locate new fossil sites and to broaden the geographic and temporal sampling of the fossil and archeological record; a comprehensive and integrative scientific drilling program in lakes, lake bed outcrops, and ocean basins surrounding the regions where hominins evolved and a major investment in climate modeling experiments for key time intervals and regions that are critical to understanding human evolution.
At the dawn of the twentieth century, a great confidence suffused America. Isaac Cline was one of the era's new men, a scientist who believed he knew all there was to know about the motion of clouds and the behavior of storms. The idea that a hurricane could damage the city of Galveston, Texas, where he was based, was to him preposterous, "an absurd delusion." It was 1900, a year when America felt bigger and stronger than ever before. Nothing in nature could hobble the gleaming city of Galveston, then a magical place that seemed destined to become the New York of the Gulf.

That August, a strange, prolonged heat wave gripped the nation and killed scores of people in New York and Chicago. Odd things seemed to happen everywhere: A plague of crickets engulfed Waco. The Bering Glacier began to shrink. Rain fell on Galveston with greater intensity than anyone could remember. Far away, in Africa, immense thunderstorms blossomed over the city of Dakar, and great currents of wind converged. A wave of atmospheric turbulence slipped from the coast of western Africa. Most such waves faded quickly. This one did not.

In Cuba, America's overconfidence was made all too obvious by the Weather Bureau's obsession with controlling hurricane forecasts, even though Cuba's indigenous weathermen had pioneered hurricane science. As the bureau's forecasters assured the nation that all was calm in the Caribbean, Cuba's own weathermen fretted about ominous signs in the sky. A curious stillness gripped Antigua. Only a few unlucky sea captains discovered that the storm had achieved an intensity no man alive had ever experienced.

In Galveston, reassured by Cline's belief that no hurricane could seriously damage the city, there was celebration. Children played in the rising water. Hundreds of people gathered at the beach to marvel at the fantastically tall waves and gorgeous pink sky, until the surf began ripping the city's beloved beachfront apart. Within the next few hours Galveston would endure a hurricane that to this day remains the nation's deadliest natural disaster. In Galveston alone at least 6,000 people, possibly as many as 10,000, would lose their lives, a number far greater than the combined death toll of the Johnstown Flood and 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.

And Isaac Cline would experience his own unbearable loss.

Meticulously researched and vividly written, Isaac's Storm is based on Cline's own letters, telegrams, and reports, the testimony of scores of survivors, and our latest understanding of the hows and whys of great storms. Ultimately, however, it is the story of what can happen when human arrogance meets nature's last great uncontrollable force. As such, Isaac's Storm carries a warning for our time.


From the Hardcover edition.
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