Designing Reality: How to Survive and Thrive in the Third Digital Revolution

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That's the promise, and peril, of the third digital revolution, where anyone will be able to make (almost) anything
Two digital revolutions--computing and communication--have radically transformed our economy and lives. A third digital revolution is here: fabrication. Today's 3D printers are only the start of a trend, accelerating exponentially, to turn data into objects: Neil Gershenfeld and his collaborators ultimately aim to create a universal replicator straight out of Star Trek. While digital fabrication promises us self-sufficient cities and the ability to make (almost) anything, it could also lead to massive inequality. The first two digital revolutions caught most of the world flat-footed, thanks to Designing Reality that won't be true this time.
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About the author

Neil Gershenfeld has been called the intellectual father of the maker movement. He leads MIT's Center for Bits and Atoms, and is the founder of the global network of over 1,000 community fab labs.
Alan Gershenfeld is president of E-Line Media and former chairman of Games for Change. He is currently working with the Center for Bits and Atoms and Fab Foundation on a DARPA funded game to fire the imagination of a generation around the future of digital fabrication.
Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld is a professor at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University and former president of the Labor and Employment Relations Association. He is a pioneer in high performance work systems and has led U.S. and global mapping of stakeholder alignment around digital fabrication.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Basic Books
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Published on
Nov 14, 2017
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Pages
304
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ISBN
9780465093489
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Features
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Industries / Computers & Information Technology
Business & Economics / Industries / Manufacturing
Political Science / Labor & Industrial Relations
Technology & Engineering / Manufacturing
Technology & Engineering / Social Aspects
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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A BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR: NPR, Slate, Publishers Weekly, Goodreads

Following the success of The Accidental Billionaires and Moneyball comes Console Wars—a mesmerizing, behind-the-scenes business thriller that chronicles how Sega, a small, scrappy gaming company led by an unlikely visionary and a team of rebels, took on the juggernaut Nintendo and revolutionized the video game industry.

In 1990, Nintendo had a virtual monopoly on the video game industry. Sega, on the other hand, was just a faltering arcade company with big aspirations and even bigger personalities. But that would all change with the arrival of Tom Kalinske, a man who knew nothing about videogames and everything about fighting uphill battles. His unconventional tactics, combined with the blood, sweat and bold ideas of his renegade employees, transformed Sega and eventually led to a ruthless David-and-Goliath showdown with rival Nintendo.

The battle was vicious, relentless, and highly profitable, eventually sparking a global corporate war that would be fought on several fronts: from living rooms and schoolyards to boardrooms and Congress. It was a once-in-a-lifetime, no-holds-barred conflict that pitted brother against brother, kid against adult, Sonic against Mario, and the US against Japan.

Based on over two hundred interviews with former Sega and Nintendo employees, Console Wars is the underdog tale of how Kalinske miraculously turned an industry punchline into a market leader. It’s the story of how a humble family man, with an extraordinary imagination and a gift for turning problems into competitive advantages, inspired a team of underdogs to slay a giant and, as a result, birth a $60 billion dollar industry.

NATIONAL BESTSELLER

Developing video games—hero's journey or fool's errand? The creative and technical logistics that go into building today's hottest games can be more harrowing and complex than the games themselves, often seeming like an endless maze or a bottomless abyss. In Blood, Sweat, and Pixels, Jason Schreier takes readers on a fascinating odyssey behind the scenes of video game development, where the creator may be a team of 600 overworked underdogs or a solitary geek genius. Exploring the artistic challenges, technical impossibilities, marketplace demands, and Donkey Kong-sized monkey wrenches thrown into the works by corporate, Blood, Sweat, and Pixels reveals how bringing any game to completion is more than Sisyphean—it's nothing short of miraculous.

Taking some of the most popular, bestselling recent games, Schreier immerses readers in the hellfire of the development process, whether it's RPG studio Bioware's challenge to beat an impossible schedule and overcome countless technical nightmares to build Dragon Age: Inquisition; indie developer Eric Barone's single-handed efforts to grow country-life RPG Stardew Valley from one man's vision into a multi-million-dollar franchise; or Bungie spinning out from their corporate overlords at Microsoft to create Destiny, a brand new universe that they hoped would become as iconic as Star Wars and Lord of the Rings—even as it nearly ripped their studio apart.

Documenting the round-the-clock crunches, buggy-eyed burnout, and last-minute saves, Blood, Sweat, and Pixels is a journey through development hell—and ultimately a tribute to the dedicated diehards and unsung heroes who scale mountains of obstacles in their quests to create the best games imaginable.

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERWALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER
The Globe and Mail Top Leadership and Management BookForbes Top Creative Leadership Book
From the visionary head of Google's innovative People Operations comes a groundbreaking inquiry into the philosophy of work-and a blueprint for attracting the most spectacular talent to your business and ensuring that they succeed.

"We spend more time working than doing anything else in life. It's not right that the experience of work should be so demotivating and dehumanizing." So says Laszlo Bock, former head of People Operations at the company that transformed how the world interacts with knowledge.

This insight is the heart of WORK RULES!, a compelling and surprisingly playful manifesto that offers lessons including:

Take away managers' power over employeesLearn from your best employees-and your worstHire only people who are smarter than you are, no matter how long it takes to find themPay unfairly (it's more fair!)Don't trust your gut: Use data to predict and shape the futureDefault to open-be transparent and welcome feedbackIf you're comfortable with the amount of freedom you've given your employees, you haven't gone far enough.

Drawing on the latest research in behavioral economics and a profound grasp of human psychology, WORK RULES! also provides teaching examples from a range of industries-including lauded companies that happen to be hideous places to work and little-known companies that achieve spectacular results by valuing and listening to their employees. Bock takes us inside one of history's most explosively successful businesses to reveal why Google is consistently rated one of the best places to work in the world, distilling 15 years of intensive worker R&D into principles that are easy to put into action, whether you're a team of one or a team of thousands.

WORK RULES! shows how to strike a balance between creativity and structure, leading to success you can measure in quality of life as well as market share. Read it to build a better company from within rather than from above; read it to reawaken your joy in what you do.

Knowledge-Driven Work is a pioneering study of the cross-cultural iffusion of ideas about the organization of work. These ideas, linked with the knowledge of the workforce, are rapidly becoming the primary source of competitive advantage in the world economy. The book provides an in-depth look at eight Japanese-affiliated manufacturing facilities operating in the United States, combined with examinations of their sister facilities in Japan. The authors offer their insights into the complex process by which elements of work systems in one country interact with those in another. They trace the flow of ideas from Japan to the US and other nations, and the beginnings of a reverse diffusion of innovation back to Japan. The authors organize their findings into six categories: the cross-cultural diffusion of work practices, team-based work systems, kaizen and employee involvement, employment security, human resource management, and labor-management relations. Their study of team-based work systems yields a taxonomy of teams and reveals some conflicts between the desire for self-management and the existence of interdependencies. Investigations into kaizen (ongoing incremental improvement) indicate that its emphasis on employee-driven, systematic problem solving makes it a strong counterpoint to the idea of top-down "re-engineering." Looking at employment security, the authors note that while most US managers believe that it restrains managerial flexibility, managers at the firms they observed see it as essential to the flexibility associated with teamwork and kaizen. The study of human resource management practices suggests competitive advantages in diverse, older, unionized, and urban work forces, and emphasizes the importance of wide-ranging training programs in a work system premised on a long-term perspective. The "wildcard" in the work places observed is labor-management relations, the area in which Japanese managers have been least likely to import their ideas. The authors report on several situations in which existing labor-management structures remained untouched, with mixed results: greater labor-management consultation, for example, but also increased ambiguity of roles. The thread running through all of these areas of work is "virtual knowledge," an ephemeral form of knowledge derived from a particular combination of people focused on a given issue. The authors point out that this powerful form of knowledge is only effectively harnessed in environments that are free of fear, that have established procedures for collective problem-solving, and that have some stability in group composition. They claim that too often companies allow virtual knowledge to dissipate, squandering opportunities to create more competitive workplaces. For those organizations that have succeeded in anticipating and channeling it, however, virtual knowledge leads to a knowledge-driven workplace and continuous improvement.
 ● 自造者運動創始教父──尼爾‧格申斐德的趨勢預言  ● 從MIT一堂「如何製造(幾乎)任何東西」的課,發起一場「工業的個人化運動」
  ● 一個教室大小的空間裡,正醞釀著影響全球的力量
  ● 未來,我們不需在受限成本而製造的商品中做選擇;我們只需要因我們自己的需求而自造
  ● 創立Fablab已成為一個新趨勢,全球Fablab在2015年達到464家,兩年內就成長了388%!

  2014年6月18日,美國總統歐巴馬在白宮舉辦了第一次的白宮Maker Faire,認為「Maker與新創事業以及製造業的升級息息相關」,Fablab便是扮演引領這股趨勢的導航角色;2015年開工第一天,中華人民共和國國務院總理李克強造訪了深圳柴火創客空間,並且辦了一張會員卡;而這一切都始於1998年的MIT。

  那年,MIT開設了一堂改變世界的課——「如何製造(幾乎)任何東西」。在這堂課上,你會學到足以讓你製造出任何自己想要東西的機器使用方法以及製造流程;像是吶喊器,它是一個,當你走在街上就是突然很想大叫,只要朝著吶喊器喊其他路人也不會聽到的一種發明;或是需要戰勝它才會停止鬧鈴的鬧鐘;或是其他你很想擁有卻無法在任何地方買到的東西。

  在工業革命後,生產了許多可以滿足大部份人欲望的商品;然而,仍有一些非常個人的欲望,在商品化提案的過程中,因為成本、市場因素永遠不會被納入考量。「既然無法買到,那就自己做吧!」秉持這信念,這些人開始走向因為「我自己」需要,所以我靠自己的力量,去學會如何製造出能滿足這個產品的所有生產流程,這就是推動「個人製造」(personal fabrication)這股風潮的力量。

  從大型電腦主機,演變到人手一台的桌上型電腦,「電腦個人化」使得我們可以靠個人的力量在虛擬世界中完成很多事;同樣的思考方式,從工廠的大量製造,到現在「工業個人化」,只要一個空間、幾檯機器,我們就能利用這一條簡單的生產線,在硬體世界裡做到幾乎任何自己想做的東西,而這個過程被稱為「自造革命」。

  十年前,尼爾.格申斐德預言了3D印表機的風靡全球,而或許我們在未來的某一天,將可以在網路購物平台上購買設計圖以及原料,自己在家、或是鄰近的實驗室做出產品,而不是購買有重量、需要被運送的商品。又比如,東西壞了也不用再買一個,而是將之前的設計圖從電腦裡叫出重新印製,甚至還可以改進上一個設計,自己修改到更接近自己需求的原型!

  科技來自於人性,當科技交還給個人的時候,或許我們將可以期待這一波的革命浪潮,會全然改變我們既有的生活方式,走向一個更多創意、更貼近我們需求的世界。
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