The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
Data are provided for all OECD member countries (including area totals), and for Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. For each indicator, there is a two-page spread: a text page includes a short introduction followed by a detailed definition of the indicator, comments on comparability of the data, an assessment of long-term trends related to the indicator and a list of references for further information on the indicator; the second page contains a table and a graph providing, at a glance, the key message conveyed by the data. Each indicator includes "StatLinks" which allow readers to download the corresponding data.
OECD Countries covered include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile,Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Non-OECD countries covered include Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, and South Africa.
Topics covered include population and migration; production and productivity; household income, wealth and debt; globalisation, trade and foreign direct investment (FDI); prices, interest rates and exchange rates; energy and transportation; labour, employment and unemployment; science and technology including research and development (R&D) and the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector; environment including natural resoures, water,and air and climate; education resources and outcomes; government expenditures, debt, revenues, taxes, agricultural support and foreign aid; and health status, risk and resources.
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The Philosophy of Taxation and Public Finance is different. It is written in nontechnical language and is aimed to appeal to a wide range of readers, including practitioners, academics and students in the fields of taxation, public finance, economics, law, philosophy and political science as well as general readers who are interested in learning why they are being taxed the way they are. The author addresses the major issues and topics in taxation and public finance and injects them with philosophical insights. He discusses questions such as:
-What arguments have been used to justify taxation?
-When is tax evasion unethical?
-Are some taxes better than others?
-What are the proper functions of government?
-How much is enough? Is the ability to pay concept valid?
-When can punitive taxes be justified?
You work hard for your money, and you work even harder to setand keep a budget that makes the most of it. But when tax timearrives, do you feel shorted on your return? Nearly everyone has topay taxes, but the government is only entitled to so much of yourmoney. You might be letting them keep hundreds or even thousands ofdollars that rightfully belong to you. No matter what youraccounting habits have been so far, you can still claim what'syours.
101 Ways to Save Money on Your Tax—Legally! 2014– 2015 is your ultimate guide to maximising your return.Author Adrian Raftery, a.k.a. Mr. Taxman, is Australia's leadingpersonal taxation expert. In the book, Raftery provides theinformation you need to get back every single dollar you'reentitled to, plus tips and tricks that help you get the most out ofdeductions related to:You, your family, and your propertyEducation, employment, and small businessInvestment property, shares, and superannuationSpecial circumstances, including medical expenses andlevies
The book also contains advice on related matters, includingtax-effective investments, tax planning, and how to find a greataccountant. All information has been updated to reflect tax lawchanges wrought by the May 2014 budget. If you're tired of payingtoo much tax and seeing too little return, 101 Ways to SaveMoney on Your Tax—Legally! 2014 – 2015 is yourcomprehensive guide to putting things right, starting now.