This test method can only be applied to pure substances, non-reactive with triglyceride, which are stable at 50°C for at least 24 hours and which also are not appreciably volatile under the same conditions. The substance is dissolved in a liquid "standard fat" by stirring, and the saturation mass fraction of the substance is achieved by continued addition until a constant value for the mass fraction dependent variable is achieved as determined by a suitable analytical method.The methods use eight samples; each should be twice the quantity necessary for saturation as determined in the preliminary test. After adding a weighed amount of approximately 25 g of liquified and mixed standard fat, four flasks are stirred at 30°C (group I) and the other four at approximately 50°C (group II), each for at least one hour. All the flasks are stirred at 37°C, for liquids during 3 hours for two flasks of each group and for at least 24 hours for the last two flasks. At the end a sample is taken, weighed and the mass fraction is determined with different methods (photometric methods, gas chromatography, and extraction).
The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.
The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In addition, it identifies five empirical issues, which have to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. Finally, it sketches a staged approach that governments might wish to consider, to assess the financial status of their water policies and to design robust financial strategies for water management. Case studies provide illustrations of selected instruments and how they can be used to finance water resources management.
While successful contract-farming schemes exist for export crops, they remain rare for food crops. Greater involvement of the private sector in designing and implementing such food-crop commercialisation programmes could develop viable local food industries. Existing international financing facilities such as the Enhanced Private Sector Assistance (EPSA) for Africa should get full use. Whether Africa can unleash the potential of commercial agriculture in the coming decades also depends in no small part on the continuous and effective support of the international development community.
The findings summarised in this volume can serve as building blocks for further international discussions on fostering agro-based private-sector development and lifting smallholders out of poverty.