OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: China 2009 Defining the Boundary between the Market and the State

OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform

Book 11
OECD Publishing
Free sample

China has made enormous progress in developing the modern legal and regulatory foundation for the market economy. The private sector is now the main driver of growth, and new laws have gone a long way toward establishing private property rights, competition, and mechanisms for entry and exit comparable to those of many OECD countries. At the same time important challenges remain, including further clarification of the scope of state ownership, reform of relations among central and local governments, firmer establishment of the rule of law, and strengthening of regulatory institutions and processes.

This review of China's regulatory system focuses on the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness. The review also examines the regulatory framework in the electricity, water and health care sectors. As for OECD countries, the review follows a multidisciplinary and highly interactive approach. A number of OECD instruments and policies are used in this assessment, although the review also takes into account the specific challenges faced by the Chinese authorities. The review includes a comprehensive set of policy recommendations.

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Additional Information

Publisher
OECD Publishing
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Published on
May 5, 2009
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Pages
322
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ISBN
9789264059429
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Language
English
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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This review of regulatory reform in Australia comes at the right time to capture the attention of the OECD community. Australia has successfully weathered the worst effects of the current economic crisis. The resilience of the Australian economy, in the face of the deepest and most widespread recession in over fifty years in OECD countries, can in part be attributed to Australia’s current and past regulatory reforms.

Australia has built strong governance foundations for the development of good regulatory management and competition policies, which are likely to be conducive to economic growth. It aims to reinvigorate a wide agenda of national reforms and to embed past reform achievements in new working arrangements between the Commonwealth and the States. This reform agenda is likely to yield substantial economic benefits for years to come, but demands joint participation and commitment from both the Commonwealth and all States. Maintaining the momentum for reform is a critical challenge, which requires a strategic vision as well as strenuous efforts to promote change and to establish a culture of continuous regulatory improvement.

Australia is one of many OECD countries to request a broad review by the OECD of its regulatory practices and reforms. This review presents a general picture , set within a macroeconomic context, of regulatory achievements and challenges, including regulatory quality at the Commonwealth level as well as across levels of government, competition policy and market openness. It also provides a special focus on Commonwealth-state relationships.

China's transformation from a virtually closed economy to a major trading nation is an incredible success story. Since 1979 the country has changed it's policies to promote increased foreign trade and investment, thereby attracting more direct investment to China than to any other developing country in recent years. What brought about this change? How, after thirty years of being walled off form the world economy, did China open its door?

This book part of the Integrating National Economies series, tells the story of how China ended it long-held policies of economic isolationism and rejoined the world economy in the decade and a half between 1979 and 1994. It shows how China's transformation into a world trading power was achieved remarkably without any major alteration in the country's communist political system. Susan L. Shirk describes the reform strategy and explains why such a turn-around was possible in China but not in the Soviet Union.

Shirk's analysis details the political logic behind the economic reform, illustrating how China's leaders were able to win support for reform politics among Communist Party and government officials. Despite strong vested interest in the status quo, the communist government successfully adopted reforms through gradualism, administrative decentralization, and ad hoc particularistic negotiating with individual subordinates. Shirk explains these distinctive features of China's path to reform.

China has achieved shallow integration with great success. Whether deeper integration with the world economy will automatically follow remains unclear. Shirk concludes that China will not be able to achieve reform in the areas of deep integration—intellectual property rights, environmental protection, and labor treatment—in the same way it achieved shallow integration. She argues that imposing international standards will require rapid enforcement, central regulation, and uniform rules. If China can meet these challenges, only then will the country successfully move toward greater openness and deeper international integration.

A volume of Brookings' Integrating National Economies Series

OECD's 1999 review of regulatory reform in Mexico. It finds that regulatory reform has been key to the transformation of the Mexican economy over the past 15 years. Formerly inward-looking and heavily regulated, the Mexican economy today is relatively open and market-based. The rapid pace, broad scope, and depth of regulatory reforms exceed those of most OECD countries. These reforms have already produced major benefits for Mexico, not least by increasing economic flexibility so that Mexico rebounds more quickly from economic crises. But benefits of reforms have been slowed by the macroeconomic crises of the 1990s. Sustained attention is needed now to complete and implement reforms to establish conditions for vigorous market competition and entry, while strengthening the capacity of the Mexican state to use high quality and transparent regulatory instruments in carrying out public policies. A multi-year period of policy stability supportive of market-led growth could produce enduring and broad-based benefits for Mexican consumers and businesses. Mexico was one of the first OECD countries to request a broad review by the OECD of its national regulatory practices and domestic regulatory reforms. This report -- the result of intensive assessment by the OECD and review by its Member countries -- is unique in that it presents an integrated assessment of regulatory reform in framework areas such as the macroeconomic context, the quality of the public sector, competition policy and enforcement, and integration of market openness principles in regulatory processes, and in sectors such as telecommunications. The policy recommendations present a balanced plan of action for both short and longer-term based on best international regulatory practices.
This review analyses the Swedish institutional framework for better regulation. In recent years Sweden has made a remarkable recovery, benefiting from deregulation efforts undertaken in the early to mid 1990s. Sweden places a strong emphasis on high standards of social welfare and a strong governance framework, which foster consensus. To preserve its ambitious social and environmental goals, Sweden needs to maintain its strong economic performance. A number of challenges should be addressed, such as the labour market, the performance of the public sector and the strengthening of competition. Entrepreneurship also should be stimulated, and further efforts have to be made to reduce administrative burdens. To create momentum for reform, Sweden needs to promote a strategic vision, improve the process for impact assessment, and strengthen co-ordination between national and local levels of government. The benefits of reform need to be more widely understood by all stakeholders and citizens. Regulatory reform will help Sweden take advantage of globalisation and technological innovation, and meet the demands of citizens for high-quality public services.

Sweden is one of many OECD countries to request a broad review by the OECD of its regulatory practices and reforms. This review presents an overall picture, set within a macroeconomic context, of regulatory achievements and challenges including regulatory quality, competition policy, and market openness. Its special focus is on regulatory governance across levels of government as well as environmental policy.

In the same series:

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Mexico

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Russia

Spain

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

This review of regulatory reform in Australia comes at the right time to capture the attention of the OECD community. Australia has successfully weathered the worst effects of the current economic crisis. The resilience of the Australian economy, in the face of the deepest and most widespread recession in over fifty years in OECD countries, can in part be attributed to Australia’s current and past regulatory reforms.

Australia has built strong governance foundations for the development of good regulatory management and competition policies, which are likely to be conducive to economic growth. It aims to reinvigorate a wide agenda of national reforms and to embed past reform achievements in new working arrangements between the Commonwealth and the States. This reform agenda is likely to yield substantial economic benefits for years to come, but demands joint participation and commitment from both the Commonwealth and all States. Maintaining the momentum for reform is a critical challenge, which requires a strategic vision as well as strenuous efforts to promote change and to establish a culture of continuous regulatory improvement.

Australia is one of many OECD countries to request a broad review by the OECD of its regulatory practices and reforms. This review presents a general picture , set within a macroeconomic context, of regulatory achievements and challenges, including regulatory quality at the Commonwealth level as well as across levels of government, competition policy and market openness. It also provides a special focus on Commonwealth-state relationships.

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