The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.
The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In addition, it identifies five empirical issues, which have to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. Finally, it sketches a staged approach that governments might wish to consider, to assess the financial status of their water policies and to design robust financial strategies for water management. Case studies provide illustrations of selected instruments and how they can be used to finance water resources management.
The results of a large number of life-cycle analyses of various bioheat and biopower chains reviewed in this study indicate that the objective to reduce GHG emissions and fossil energy use is met; indeed the savings estimated for most chains are substantial when compared to fossil alternatives. At present, most of the chains examined do not compete with food and feed production, and thus the implications for agricultural markets are small. It is clear, however, that if a stronger focus on agricultural biomass crops is to be developed, this will require careful design of support policies so as to avoid compromising the ability of the agricultural sector to provide food and feed in a sustainable manner.
"There are not many of us left who served through the Marshall Plan from its beginning, and fewer still who served time in the Hotel Talleyrand in Paris, the site of the anniversary celebration, in June 2007, of Secretary George C. Marshall’s 1947 commencement address launching the European Recovery Program. There are, though, scholars who can address those times and evaluate them so that the experience can live on.
"The dedication of the Hotel de Talleyrand as a memorial to that unique enterprise provided the opportunity; and the analyses and evaluations in this splendid volume, The Marshall Plan: Lessons Learned for the 21st Century, reflect the excitement, as well as the accomplishments, of an economic enterprise that produced the infrastructure of NATO and the European Union. Long live the spirit of Marshall’s vision!"
-Thomas C. Schelling, Marshall Plan alumnus, Washington, Copenhagen, Paris, Washington, ’48-‘53, Nobel Prize in Economics 2005
"A historical event is and remains crucial when it interacts with others in such a way as to contribute to a deep and positive change in the course of history. In this sense, the Marshall Plan made an outstanding and lasting contribution. It was instrumental to overcoming the temptation of isolationism in the US, to reviving our badly needed economic recovery and gave a decisive input to coordinating our national efforts, thus paving the way to our future European integration."
When I think of the world as it would have been without the Marshall Plan, I am encouraged to conclude that even in our challenging times, another, better world is possible. This collection of well written contributions and analyses, The Marshall Plan: Lessons Learned for the 21st Century, further strengthens my convictions.
-Giuliano Amato, Former Prime Minister, Italy
Former Vice President, European Constitutional Assembly