Tau-p: a plane wave approach to the analysis of seismic data

Modern Approaches in Geophysics

Book 8
Springer Science & Business Media
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In exploration seismology, data are acquired at multiple source and receiver posi tions along a profile line. These data are subsequently processed and interpreted. The primary result of this process is a subsurface image of the exploration target. As part of this procedure, additional information is also obtained about the subsurface material properties, e.g., seismic velocities. The methods that are employed in the acquisition and processing of exploration seismic data are internally consistent. That is, principally near vertical incidence seismic waves are generated, recorded and subsequently imaged. The data processing methods commonly used are based upon a small angle of incidence approximation, thus making the imaging problem tractable for existing data processing technology. Although tremendously successful, the limitations of this method are generally recognized. Current and future exploration goals will likely require the use of additional seismic waves, i.e., both compressional and shear precritical and postcritical reflections and refractions. Also, in addition to making better use of seismic travel times, recent efforts to directly incorporate seismic amplitude variations show that the approach may lead to a better understanding of subsurface rock properties. In response to more demanding exploration goals, recent data acquisition techniques have improved significantly by increasing the spatial aperture and incorporating a large number of closely spaced receivers. The need for better subsurface resolution in depth and position has encouraged the use of 240, 512, and even 1024 recorded data channels with receiver separations of 5 to 25 m.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
196
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ISBN
9789400908819
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Physics / Geophysics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Surface waves form the longest and strongest portion of a seismic record excited by explosions and shallow earthquakes. Traversing areas with diverse geologic structures, they 'absorb' information on the properties of these areas which is best retlected in dispersion, the dependence of velocity on frequency. The other prop erties of these waves - polarization, frequency content, attenuation, azimuthal variation of the amplitude and phase - arc also controlled by the medium between the source and the recording station; some of these are affected by the properties of the source itself and by the conditions around it. In recent years surface wave seismology has become an indispensable part of seismological practice. The maximum amplitude in the surface wave train of virtually every earthquake or major explosion is being measured and used by all national and international seismological surveys in the determination of the most important energy parameter of a seismic source, namely, the magnitude M,. The relationship between M, and the body wave magnitude fI1t, is routinely employed in identification of underground nuclear explosions. Surface waves of hundreds of earthquakes recorded every year are being analysed to estimate the seismic moment tensor of earthquake sources, to determine the periods of free oscillations of the Earth, to construct regional dispersion curves from which in turn the crustal and upper mantle structure in various areas is derived, and to evaluate the dissipative parameters of the mantle material.
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This eBook includes the original index, illustrations, footnotes, table of contents and page numbering from the printed format.

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