The book is divided in five parts covering the foundations of the inversion theory and its applications to the solution of different geophysical inverse problems, including potential field, electromagnetic, and seismic methods. The first part is an introduction to inversion theory. The second part contains a description of the basic methods of solution of the linear and nonlinear inverse problems using regularization. The following parts treat the application of regularization methods in gravity and magnetic, electromagnetic, and seismic inverse problems. The key connecting idea of these applied parts of the book is the analogy between the solutions of the forward and inverse problems in different geophysical methods. The book also includes chapters related to the modern technology of geophysical imaging, based on seismic and electromagnetic migration.
This volume is unique in its focus on providing a link between the methods used in gravity, electromagnetic, and seismic imaging and inversion, and represents an exhaustive treatise on inversion theory.
The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress. Some tutorials may only involve drawing simple diagrams, but many are computer-aided (PC based) with graphics output to give insight into key steps in seismic data processing or into the seismic response of some common geological scenarios. Part I of the book covers basic ideas and it ends with two tutorials in 2-D structural interpretation. Part II concentrates on the current seismic reflection contribution to reservoir studies, based on 3-D data.
The mathematics required in order to understand the text is purposely kept to a minimum, so the book is suitable for courses taken in geophysics by all undergraduate students. It will also be of use to postgraduate students who might wish to include geophysics in their studies and to all professional geologists who wish to discover the breadth of the subject in connection with their own work.
theories and methods employed in EM geophysical exploration.
The book brings together the fundamental theory of EM fields and the practical
aspects of EM exploration for mineral and energy resources.
This text is unique in its breadth and completeness in providing an
overview of EM geophysical exploration technology.
The book is divided into four parts covering the foundations of EM
field theory and its applications, and emerging geophysical methods.
Part I is an introduction to the field theory required for baseline
Part II is an overview of all the basic elements of
geophysical EM theory, from Maxwell's fundamental equations to modern
methods of modeling the EM field in complex 3-D geoelectrical formations.
Part III deals with the regularized solution of ill-posed
inverse electromagnetic problems, the multidimensional migration and imaging of
electromagnetic data, and general interpretation techniques.
Part IV describes major geophysical electromagnetic methods—direct current (DC), induced polarization (IP), magnetotelluric
(MT), and controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods—and covers
different applications of EM methods in exploration geophysics, including
minerals and HC exploration, environmental study, and crustal study.
* Presents theoretical and methodological findings, as well as examples of applications of recently developed algorithms and software in solving practical problems
* Describes the practical importance of electromagnetic data through enabling discussions on a construction of a closed technological cycle, processing, analysis and three-dimensional interpretation
* Updates current findings in the field, especially with MT, magnetovariational and seismo-electrical methods and the practice of 3D interpretations
Both local and global optimization methods are used in the estimation of material properties from geophysical data. As the title of the book suggests, the aim of this book is to describe the application of several recently developed global optimization methods to geophysical problems.
• The well known linear and gradient based optimization methods have been summarized in order to explain their advantages and limitations
• The theory of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms have been described in sufficient detail for the readers to understand the underlying fundamental principles upon which these algorithms are based
• The algorithms have been described using simple flow charts (the algorithms are general and can be applied to a wide variety of problems
Students, researchers and practitioners will be able to design practical algorithms to solve their specific geophysical inversion problems. The book is virtually self-contained so that there are no prerequisites, except for a fundamental mathematical background that includes a basic understanding of linear algebra and calculus.