Punitive Damages und deutsches Schadensersatzrecht

Walter de Gruyter
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Walter de Gruyter
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Oct 24, 2012
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Software systems play an increasingly important role in modern societies. Smart cards for personal identi?cation, e-banking, software-controlled me- cal tools, airbags in cars, and autopilots for aircraft control are only some examples that illustrate how everyday life depends on the good behavior of software. Consequently, techniques and methods for the development of hi- quality, dependable software systems are a central research topic in computer science. A fundamental approach to this area is to use formal speci?cation and veri?cation. Speci?cation languages allow one to describe the crucial p- perties of software systems in an abstract, mathematically precise, and implementation-independent way. By formal veri?cation, one can then prove that an implementation really has the desired, speci?ed properties. Although this formal methods approach has been a research topic for more than 30 years, its practical success is still restricted to domains in which devel- ment costs are of minor importance. Two aspects are crucial to widen the application area of formal methods: – Formal speci?cation techniques have to be smoothly integrated into the software and program development process. – The techniques have to be applicable to reusable software components. This way, the quality gain can be exploited for more than one system, thereby justifying the higher development costs. Starting from these considerations, Peter Muller ̈ has developed new te- niques for the formal speci?cation and veri?cation of object-oriented so- ware. The speci?cation techniques are declarative and implementati- independent. They can be used for object-oriented design and programming.
The field of brain imaging is developing at a rapid pace and has greatly advanced the areas of cognitive and clinical neuroscience. The availability of neuroimaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic source imaging (MSI) has brought about breakthroughs in neuroscience. To obtain comprehensive information about the activity of the human brain, different analytical approaches should be complemented. Thus, in "intermodal multimodality" imaging, great efforts have been made to combine the highest spatial resolution (MRI, fMRI) with the best temporal resolution (MEG or EEG). "Intramodal multimodality" imaging combines various functional MRI techniques (e.g., fMRI, DTI, and/or morphometric/volumetric analysis). The multimodal approach is conceptually based on the combination of different noninvasive functional neuroimaging tools, their registration and cointegration. In particular, the combination of imaging applications that map different functional systems is useful, such as fMRI as a technique for the localization of cortical function and DTI as a technique for mapping of white matter fiber bundles or tracts. This booklet gives an insight into the wide field of multimodal imaging with respect to concepts, data acquisition, and postprocessing. Examples for intermodal and intramodal multimodality imaging are also demonstrated. Table of Contents: Introduction / Neurological Measurement Techniques and First Steps of Postprocessing / Coordinate Transformation / Examples for Multimodal Imaging / Clinical Aspects of Multimodal Imaging / References / Biography
The Encyclopedia of Social Theory contains over 500 entries varying from concise definitions of key terms and short biographies of key theorists to comprehensive surveys of leading concepts, debates, themes and schools. The object of the Encyclopedia has been to give thorough coverage of the central topics in theoretical sociology as well as terms and concepts in the methodology and philosophy of social science. Although 106 theorists are given entries, the emphasis of the work is on the elucidation of ideas rather than intellectual biography. The Encyclopedia covers the leading contemporary domains of debate on social theory and the classical legacies of social thinkers from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, giving proper balance to both the European and North American traditions and to important new developments in the global self-understanding of sociology.

Social theory has become one of the most vigorous specialisms of sociology in recent years. This is in part due to the considerable overlaps of social theory with other disciplinary areas, such as cultural and media studies, anthropology, and political theory, and to the cross-disciplinary nature of theoretical approaches such as feminism and psychoanalysis, and new fields such as postcolonial studies. The editors have therefore worked to produce in the Encyclopedia of Social Theory a first-call reference for students and researchers across the social sciences and humanities with an interest in contemporary theory and the modern history of ideas.

The Encyclopedia has been authored by leading international specialists in the field under the direction of a well-balanced editorial team. It is comprehensively cross-referenced and all larger entries carry bibliographies. There is a full index.

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