Dans une Arménie soumise à la Rome impériale, un jeune seigneur, Polyeucte, époux de la fille du gouverneur, se fait baptiser en secret à l’instigation de Néarque, son ami chrétien. Prié d’assister peu après à un sacrifice qui célèbre le retour d’un général romain, il perturbe le rituel en proclamant sa foi et entreprend de briser les statues du culte païen. Ni les prières de son épouse, ni les supplications de son beau-père ne lui feront renier son acte.
Quand Corneille, dans le courant de l’hiver 1642-1643, porte sa tragédie à la scène, la singularité de son Polyeucte martyr – qui reprend l’histoire d’un saint authentique et s’inspire discrètement d’une pièce italienne – est d’associer la figure du chrétien et celle du héros de tragédie. «Si mourir pour son prince est un illustre sort, / Quand on meurt pour son Dieu, quelle sera la mort ?» Le martyre est ainsi une forme d’héroïsme. Mais la violence iconoclaste de Polyeucte est-elle d’un chrétien ou bien plutôt d’un fanatique comme le pensait Voltaire ? C’est peut-être de ce fanatisme que la pièce, aujourd’hui, tire son actualité.
Edition de Claude Bourqui et Simone de Reyff.
As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with the problem of evil, so too does Candide in this short novel, albeit more directly and humorously. Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers through allegory; most conspicuously, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism.
Voltaire's men and women point his case against optimism by starting high and falling low. A modern could not go about it after this fashion. He would not plunge his people into an unfamiliar misery. He would just keep them in the misery they were born to.
But such an account of Voltaire's procedure is as misleading as the plaster cast of a dance. Look at his procedure again. Mademoiselle Cunégonde, the illustrious Westphalian, sprung from a family that could prove seventy-one quarterings, descends and descends until we find her earning her keep by washing dishes in the Propontis. The aged faithful attendant, victim of a hundred acts of rape by negro pirates, remembers that she is the daughter of a pope, and that in honor of her approaching marriage with a Prince of Massa-Carrara all Italy wrote sonnets of which not one was passable. We do not need to know French literature before Voltaire in order to feel, although the lurking parody may escape us, that he is poking fun at us and at himself. His laughter at his own methods grows more unmistakable at the last, when he caricatures them by casually assembling six fallen monarchs in an inn at Venice.
A modern assailant of optimism would arm himself with social pity. There is no social pity in "Candide." Voltaire, whose light touch on familiar institutions opens them and reveals their absurdity, likes to remind us that the slaughter and pillage and murder which Candide witnessed among the Bulgarians was perfectly regular, having been conducted according to the laws and usages of war.
Had Voltaire lived today he would have done to poverty what he did to war. Pitying the poor, he would have shown us poverty as a ridiculous anachronism, and both the ridicule and the pity would have expressed his indignation.
François-Marie Arouet (1694 – 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works.
He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.
When he is sent away in disgrace after kissing his cousin, the lady Cunégonde, Candide finds himself first pressed into military service with the Prussians, and then beset by natural disasters in Portugal before being reunited first with his tutor, Pangloss, and then finally with his beloved Cunégonde. As the trio embark on a new life in South America, they find their faith once again challenged by the events that befall them.
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