Cognitive Tools for Learning

Nato ASI Subseries F

Book 81
Springer Science & Business Media
Free sample

Hypermedia technology needs a creative approach from the outset in the design of software to facilitate human thinking and learning. This book opens a discussion of the potential of hypermedia and related approaches to provide open exploratory learning environments. The papers in the book are based on contributions to a NATO Advanced Research Workshop held in July1990 and are grouped into six sections: - Semantic networking as cognitive tools, - Expert systems as cognitive tools, - Hypertext as cognitive tools, - Collaborative communication tools, - Microworlds: context-dependent cognitive tools, - Implementing cognitive tools. The book will be valuable for those who design, implement and evaluate learning programs and who seek to escape from rigid tactics like programmed instruction and behavioristic approaches. The book presents principles for exploratory systems that go beyond existing metaphors of instruction and provokes the reader to think in a new way about the cognitive level of human-computer interaction.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
282
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ISBN
9783642772221
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Information Technology
Computers / Intelligence (AI) & Semantics
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This content is DRM protected.
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There have been significant developments in the theory and practice of combinatorial optimization in the last 15 years. This progress has been evidenced by a continuously increasing number of international and local conferences, books and papers in this area. This book is also another contribution to this burgeoning area of operations research and optimization. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of the recent NATO Ad vanced Study Institute, New Frontiers in the Theory and Practice of Combinatorial Op timization, which was held at the campus of Bilkent University, in Ankara, Turkey, July 16-29, 1990. In this conference, we brought many prominent researchers and young and promising scientists together to discuss current and future trends in the theory and prac tice of combinatorial optimization. The Bilkent campus was an excellent environment for such an undertaking. Being outside of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, Bilkent University gave the participants a great opportunity for exchanging ideas and discussing new theories and applications without much distraction. One of the primary goals of NATO ASIs is to bring together a group of scientists and research scientists primarily from the NATO countries for the dissemination of ad vanced scientific knowledge and the promotion of international contacts among scientists. We believe that we accomplished this mission very successfully by bringing together 15 prominent lecturers and 45 promising young scientists from 12 countries, in a university environment for 14 days of intense lectures, presentations and discussions.
The NATO workshop ''Knowledge acquisition in the domain of physics and intelligent learning environments" was held in Lyon, France, July 8-12, 1990. A total of 31 researchers from Europe (France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and the U. K. ), the U. S. A. , and Japan worked together. This proceedings volume contains most of the contributions to the workshop. The papers show clearly the main directions of research in intelligent learning environments. They display a variety of points of view depending on the researcher's own background even when a single domain of teaching, namely physics, is considered. We acknowledge the assistance of Michael Baker, who was responsible for reviewing the English of the contributions. February 1992 Andree TIberghien Heinz Mandl Table of Contents Introduction 1 1. Teaching Situations and Physics Knowledge Introductory University Courses and Open Environment Approaches: The Computer as a Multi-role Mediator in Teaching/Learning Physics 5 E. Balzano, P. Guidoni, M. Moretti, E. Sassi, G. Sgueglia Practical Work Aid: Knowledge Representation in a Model Based AI System 21 J. Courtois Simultaneous Processing of Different Problem Aspects in Expert Problem Solving: An Analysis in the Domain of Physics on the Basis of Formal Theories of Commonsense Knowledge 35 A. Hron Modelis: An Artificial Intelligence System Which Models Thermodynamics Textbook Problems 47 G. Tisseau 2. Different Approaches to Student Modelling Steps Towards the Formalisation of a Psycho-logic of Motion 65 J. Bliss, J.
The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Issues in Acoustic Signal/Image Processing and Recognition was held August 5-9, 1982 at the Cappuccini complex in San Miniato Italy. The Workshop was primarily concerned with the underwater acoustic signal processing and seismic signal analysis and a major effort was made to link these topics with pattern recognition, i~ge processing and artificial intelligence. Major issues and new approaches in these interrelated areas were closely examined in the Workshop. In addition to paper presentations three discussion sessions were held on! (1) spectral analysis in underwater acoustics, (2) seismic wave propaga tion, seismic imaging and migration, and seismic inversion, and (3) unresolved issues and future directions. This Proceedings volume includes most presentations made at the Workshop. The publication, like the meeting itself, is unique in the sense that it provides exten sive interactions among the closely related areas stated above. Such interactions which usually result in the integration of different systems or approaches are certainly much needed to achieve some performance breakthrough while individual systems or approaches reach their performance limit. I am grateful to all participants for their active participation that makes the Workshop very productive, and to Dr. Lewis J. Lloyd and Dr. Ralph Goodman for their help to arrange an informative visit to the SACLANT ASW Research Centre for the Workshop participants. I am confident that this publication will be equally produc tive to report important current research results and near-future research activity particularly in underwater acoustic signal processing.
The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.
Highlighting and illustrating several important and interesting theoretical trends that have emerged in the continuing development of instructional technology, this book's organizational framework is based on the notion of two opposing camps. One evolves out of the intelligent tutoring movement, which employs artificial-intelligence technologies in the service of student modeling and precision diagnosis, and the other emerges from a constructivist/developmental perspective that promotes exploration and social interaction, but tends to reject the methods and goals of the student modelers. While the notion of opposing camps tends to create an artificial rift between groups of researchers, it represents a conceptual distinction that is inherently more interesting and informative than the relatively meaningless divide often drawn between "intelligent" and "unintelligent" instructional systems.

An evident trend is that researchers in both "camps" view their computer learning environments as "cognitive tools" that can enhance learning, performance, and understanding. Cognitive tools are objects provided by the instructional environment that allow students to incorporate new auxiliary methods or symbols into their social problem solving which otherwise would be unavailable. A final section of the book represents researchers who are assimilating and accommodating the wisdom and creativity of their neighbors from both camps, perhaps forming the look of technology for the future. When the idea of model tracing in a computer-based environment is combined with appreciation for creative mind-extension cognitive tools and for how a community of learners can facilitate learning, a camp is created where AI technologists and social constructivist learning theorists can feel equally at home.
There have been significant developments in the theory and practice of combinatorial optimization in the last 15 years. This progress has been evidenced by a continuously increasing number of international and local conferences, books and papers in this area. This book is also another contribution to this burgeoning area of operations research and optimization. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of the recent NATO Ad vanced Study Institute, New Frontiers in the Theory and Practice of Combinatorial Op timization, which was held at the campus of Bilkent University, in Ankara, Turkey, July 16-29, 1990. In this conference, we brought many prominent researchers and young and promising scientists together to discuss current and future trends in the theory and prac tice of combinatorial optimization. The Bilkent campus was an excellent environment for such an undertaking. Being outside of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, Bilkent University gave the participants a great opportunity for exchanging ideas and discussing new theories and applications without much distraction. One of the primary goals of NATO ASIs is to bring together a group of scientists and research scientists primarily from the NATO countries for the dissemination of ad vanced scientific knowledge and the promotion of international contacts among scientists. We believe that we accomplished this mission very successfully by bringing together 15 prominent lecturers and 45 promising young scientists from 12 countries, in a university environment for 14 days of intense lectures, presentations and discussions.
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