Interfaces in Computer Science and Operations Research

Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series

Book 7
Springer Science & Business Media
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The disciplines of computer science and operations research (OR) have been linked since their origins, each contributing to the dramatic advances of the other. This work explores the connections between these key technologies: how high-performance computing methods have led to advances in OR de ployment, and how OR has contributed to the design and development of ad vanced systems. The collected writings-from researchers and practitioners in Computer Science, Operations Research, Management Science, and Artificial Intelligence-were among those delivered at the Fifth INFORMS Computer Science Technical Section Conference in Dallas, Texas, January 8-10, 1996. The articles advance both theory and practice. Presented are new approaches to complex problems based on: metaheuristics (neural networks, genetic al gorithms, and Tabu Search), optimization and mathematical programming, stochastic methods, constraint programming, and logical analysis. These ad vanced methodologies are applied to new applications in such areas as: telecom munications network design, financial engineering, manufacturing, project man agement, and forecasting, airline and machine scheduling, vehicle routing, mod eling and decision support systems. Featured is a remarkable paper by keynote speaker Fred Glover, creator of the Tabu Search family of metaheuristics. In it he develops the principles of memory-based heuristic methods, contrasts them with the popular genetic algorithms and simulated annealing, provides a sweeping survey of application vignettes, and points to promising avenues for future research.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
442
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ISBN
9781461541028
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / General
Business & Economics / Operations Research
Computers / Intelligence (AI) & Semantics
Language Arts & Disciplines / Library & Information Science / General
Science / System Theory
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This volume of research papers comprises the proceedings of the first International Conference on Mathematics of Neural Networks and Applications (MANNA), which was held at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford from July 3rd to 7th, 1995 and attended by 116 people. The meeting was strongly supported and, in addition to a stimulating academic programme, it featured a delightful venue, excellent food and accommo dation, a full social programme and fine weather - all of which made for a very enjoyable week. This was the first meeting with this title and it was run under the auspices of the Universities of Huddersfield and Brighton, with sponsorship from the US Air Force (European Office of Aerospace Research and Development) and the London Math ematical Society. This enabled a very interesting and wide-ranging conference pro gramme to be offered. We sincerely thank all these organisations, USAF-EOARD, LMS, and Universities of Huddersfield and Brighton for their invaluable support. The conference organisers were John Mason (Huddersfield) and Steve Ellacott (Brighton), supported by a programme committee consisting of Nigel Allinson (UMIST), Norman Biggs (London School of Economics), Chris Bishop (Aston), David Lowe (Aston), Patrick Parks (Oxford), John Taylor (King's College, Lon don) and Kevin Warwick (Reading). The local organiser from Huddersfield was Ros Hawkins, who took responsibility for much of the administration with great efficiency and energy. The Lady Margaret Hall organisation was led by their bursar, Jeanette Griffiths, who ensured that the week was very smoothly run.
Welcome to ANALYZE, designed to provide computer assistance for analyzing linear programs and their solutions. Chapter 1 gives an overview of ANALYZE and how to install it. It also describes how to get started and how to obtain further documentation and help on-line. Chapter 2 reviews the forms of linear programming models and describes the syntax of a model. One of the routine, but important, functions of ANALYZE is to enable convenient access to rows and columns in the matrix by conditional delineation. Chapter 3 illustrates simple queries, like DISPLAY, LIST, and PICTURE. This chapter also introduces the SUBMAT command level to define any submatrix by an arbitrary sequence of additions, deletions and reversals. Syntactic explanations and a schema view are also illustrated. Chapter 4 goes through some elementary exercises to demonstrate computer assisted analysis and introduce additional conventions of the ANALYZE language. Besides simple queries, it demonstrates the INTERPRT command, which automates the analysis process and gives English explanations of results. The last 2 exercises are diagnoses of elementary infeasible instances of a particular model. Chapter 5 progresses to some advanced uses of ANALYZE. The first is blocking to obtain macro views of the model and for finding embedded substructures, like a netform. The second is showing rates of substitution described by the basic equations. Then, the use of the REDUCE and BASIS commands are illustrated for a variety of applications, including solution analysis, infeasibility diagnosis, and redundancy detection.
In the years following her role as the lead author of the international bestseller, Limits to Growth—the first book to show the consequences of unchecked growth on a finite planet— Donella Meadows remained a pioneer of environmental and social analysis until her untimely death in 2001.

Thinking in Systems, is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. Edited by the Sustainability Institute’s Diana Wright, this essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.

Some of the biggest problems facing the world—war, hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation—are essentially system failures. They cannot be solved by fixing one piece in isolation from the others, because even seemingly minor details have enormous power to undermine the best efforts of too-narrow thinking.

While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was for delving into the science behind global dilemmas. She reminds readers to pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable, to stay humble, and to stay a learner.

In a world growing ever more complicated, crowded, and interdependent, Thinking in Systems helps readers avoid confusion and helplessness, the first step toward finding proactive and effective solutions.

Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practitioners as well as scientists working in the field of project management.
The book is divided into two parts. In Part I, the project management process is described and the management tasks to be accomplished during project planning and control are discussed. This allows for identifying the major scheduling problems arising in the planning process, among which the resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the most important. Part II deals with efficient computer-based procedures for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem and its generalized version. Since both problems are NP-hard, the development of such procedures which yield satisfactory solutions in a reasonable amount of computation time is very challenging, and a number of new and very promising approaches are introduced. This includes heuristic procedures based on priority rules and tabu search as well as lower bound methods and branch and bound procedures which can be applied for computing optimal solutions.
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