Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness

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From the winner of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Economics, Richard H. Thaler, and Cass R. Sunstein: a revelatory look at how we make decisions—for fans of Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow

New York Times bestseller
Named a Best Book of the Year by The Economist and the Financial Times


Every day we make choices—about what to buy or eat, about financial investments or our children’s health and education, even about the causes we champion or the planet itself. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. Nudge is about how we make these choices and how we can make better ones. Using dozens of eye-opening examples and drawing on decades of behavioral science research, Nobel Prize winner Richard H. Thaler and Harvard Law School professor Cass R. Sunstein show that no choice is ever presented to us in a neutral way, and that we are all susceptible to biases that can lead us to make bad decisions. But by knowing how people think, we can use sensible “choice architecture” to nudge people toward the best decisions for ourselves, our families, and our society, without restricting our freedom of choice.

More than 750,000 copies sold
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About the author

Cass R. Sunstein is a law professor at Harvard Law School and is the most cited law professor in the United States.

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Reviews

3.5
1,441 total
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Additional Information

Publisher
Penguin
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Published on
Feb 24, 2009
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Pages
320
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ISBN
9781101655092
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Features
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Decision-Making & Problem Solving
Self-Help / Self-Management / General
Social Science / Sociology / Social Theory
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Richard H. Thaler
Winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics

Get ready to change the way you think about economics.

Nobel laureate Richard H. Thaler has spent his career studying the radical notion that the central agents in the economy are humans—predictable, error-prone individuals. Misbehaving is his arresting, frequently hilarious account of the struggle to bring an academic discipline back down to earth—and change the way we think about economics, ourselves, and our world.

Traditional economics assumes rational actors. Early in his research, Thaler realized these Spock-like automatons were nothing like real people. Whether buying a clock radio, selling basketball tickets, or applying for a mortgage, we all succumb to biases and make decisions that deviate from the standards of rationality assumed by economists. In other words, we misbehave. More importantly, our misbehavior has serious consequences. Dismissed at first by economists as an amusing sideshow, the study of human miscalculations and their effects on markets now drives efforts to make better decisions in our lives, our businesses, and our governments.

Coupling recent discoveries in human psychology with a practical understanding of incentives and market behavior, Thaler enlightens readers about how to make smarter decisions in an increasingly mystifying world. He reveals how behavioral economic analysis opens up new ways to look at everything from household finance to assigning faculty offices in a new building, to TV game shows, the NFL draft, and businesses like Uber.

Laced with antic stories of Thaler’s spirited battles with the bastions of traditional economic thinking, Misbehaving is a singular look into profound human foibles. When economics meets psychology, the implications for individuals, managers, and policy makers are both profound and entertaining.

Shortlisted for the Financial Times & McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award

Daniel Kahneman
Major New York Times bestseller
Winner of the National Academy of Sciences Best Book Award in 2012
Selected by the New York Times Book Review as one of the ten best books of 2011
A Globe and Mail Best Books of the Year 2011 Title
One of The Economist's 2011 Books of the Year
One of The Wall Street Journal's Best Nonfiction Books of the Year 2011
2013 Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient
Kahneman's work with Amos Tversky is the subject of Michael Lewis's The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds

In the international bestseller, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman, the renowned psychologist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. The impact of overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning our next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Winner of the National Academy of Sciences Best Book Award and the Los Angeles Times Book Prize and selected by The New York Times Book Review as one of the ten best books of 2011, Thinking, Fast and Slow is destined to be a classic.

Steven D. Levitt
Which is more dangerous, a gun or a swimming pool? What do schoolteachers and sumo wrestlers have in common? Why do drug dealers still live with their moms? How much do parents really matter? How did the legalization of abortion affect the rate of violent crime?

These may not sound like typical questions for an economist to ask. But Steven D. Levitt is not a typical economist. He is a much-heralded scholar who studies the riddles of everyday life—from cheating and crime to sports and child-rearing—and whose conclusions turn conventional wisdom on its head.

Freakonomics is a groundbreaking collaboration between Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, an award-winning author and journalist. They usually begin with a mountain of data and a simple question. Some of these questions concern life-and-death issues; others have an admittedly freakish quality. Thus the new field of study contained in this book: Freakonomics.

Through forceful storytelling and wry insight, Levitt and Dubner show that economics is, at root, the study of incentives—how people get what they want, or need, especially when other people want or need the same thing. In Freakonomics, they explore the hidden side of . . . well, everything. The inner workings of a crack gang. The truth about real-estate agents. The myths of campaign finance. The telltale marks of a cheating schoolteacher. The secrets of the Ku Klux Klan.

What unites all these stories is a belief that the modern world, despite a great deal of complexity and downright deceit, is not impenetrable, is not unknowable, and—if the right questions are asked—is even more intriguing than we think. All it takes is a new way of looking.

Freakonomics establishes this unconventional premise: If morality represents how we would like the world to work, then economics represents how it actually does work. It is true that readers of this book will be armed with enough riddles and stories to last a thousand cocktail parties. But Freakonomics can provide more than that. It will literally redefine the way we view the modern world.

Bonus material added to the revised and expanded 2006 edition

The original New York Times Magazine article about Steven D. Levitt by Stephen J. Dubner, which led to the creation of this book.

Seven “Freakonomics” columns written for the New York Times Magazine, published between August 2005 and April 2006.

Selected entries from the Freakonomics blog, posted between April 2005 and May 2006 at http://www.freakonomics.com/blog/.

Cass R. Sunstein
With the election of Donald J. Trump, many people on both the left and right feared that America’s 240-year-old grand experiment in democracy was coming to an end, and that Sinclair Lewis’ satirical novel, It Can’t Happen Here, written during the dark days of the 1930s, could finally be coming true. Is the democratic freedom that the United States symbolizes really secure? Can authoritarianism happen in America?

Acclaimed legal scholar, Harvard Professor, and New York Times bestselling author Cass R. Sunstein queried a number of the nation’s leading thinkers. In this thought-provoking collection of essays, these distinguished thinkers and theorists explore the lessons of history, how democracies crumble, how propaganda works, and the role of the media, courts, elections, and "fake news" in the modern political landscape—and what the future of the United States may hold.

Contributors include:

Martha Minow, dean of Harvard Law SchoolEric Posner, law professor at the University of Chicago Law SchoolTyler Cowen, economics professor at George Mason UniversityTimur Kuran, economics and political science professor at Duke UniversityNoah Feldman, professor of law at Harvard Law SchoolJonathan Haidt, social psychologist and Professor of Ethical Leadership at New York University’s Stern School of BusinessJack Goldsmith, Professor at Harvard Law School, Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, and co-founder of LawfareStephen Holmes, Professor of Law at New York UniversityJon Elster, Professor of the Social Sciences at Columbia UniversityThomas Ginsburg, Professor of International Law and Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago and a member of the American Academy of Arts and SciencesCass R. Sunstein, Robert Walmsley University Professor, Harvard UniversityDuncan Watts, sociologist and principal researcher at Microsoft Research

Cass R. Sunstein
“Sunstein has written the story of impeachment every citizen needs to know. This is a remarkable, essential book.” — Doris Kearns Goodwin As Benjamin Franklin famously put it, Americans have a republic, if we can keep it. Preserving the Constitution and the democratic system it supports is the public’s responsibility. One route the Constitution provides for discharging that duty—a route rarely traveled—is impeachment. Cass R. Sunstein provides a succinct citizen’s guide to an essential tool of self-government. He illuminates the constitutional design behind impeachment and emphasizes the people’s role in holding presidents accountable. Despite intense interest in the subject, impeachment is widely misunderstood. Sunstein identifies and corrects a number of misconceptions. For example, he shows that the Constitution, not the House of Representatives, establishes grounds for impeachment, and that the president can be impeached for abuses of power that do not violate the law. Even neglect of duty counts among the “high crimes and misdemeanors” delineated in the republic’s foundational document. Sunstein describes how impeachment helps make sense of our constitutional order, particularly the framers’ controversial decision to install an empowered executive in a nation deeply fearful of kings. With an eye toward the past and the future, Impeachment: A Citizen’s Guide considers a host of actual and imaginable arguments for a president’s removal, explaining why some cases are easy and others hard, why some arguments for impeachment have been judicious and others not. In direct and approachable terms, it dispels the fog surrounding impeachment so that Americans of all political convictions may use their ultimate civic authority wisely.
凱斯.桑思汀
星戰就像一粒沙,當中蘊藏一世界。

星際大戰是關於選擇、犧牲與救贖的童話故事,
也是探討社會影響與公共議題的學科文本。
它發生在遙遠的銀河系,卻出奇貼近人心,直觸情感中的激越與矛盾,
看似淺白喧鬧,卻鼓勵你思考生命中許多重要的事。

原力是否存在真實生活中?
我們可以從星際大戰學到什麼?在人心方面有何啟發?

媒體評論家公認「美國最危險的人」──凱斯.桑思汀,
是當代美國重量級的法律學者、歐巴馬最信任的智囊,
但他同時也是一個名副其實的星戰迷。
他發現透過星際大戰,你能夠更透徹的了解自己,和這個世界!

本書首先探索我們對星際大戰的癡迷熱愛,探究這系列電影的不凡緣起,接著,桑思汀把星際大戰搖身一變為寶貴的學科文本,檢視它為社會、政治與道德層面所帶來的影響,辨析它對憲法、歷史、經濟學,甚至人際牽繫的啟示。書中也對於父子關係、個人選擇的自由、民主是如何變成獨裁、J.J.亞伯拉罕和喬治.盧卡斯誰會是較稱職的大法官等既複雜又有趣的議題,提出嶄新見解。

無論你是熱愛星際大戰,或是想要了解這個文化現象為何能引起不同世代之間的共鳴,都應該讀這本輕鬆迷人的不凡傑作。

桑斯汀教授寫給台灣讀者:

非常高興聽到這本真心之作能有繁體中文版,和臺灣讀者見面。前些日子我才造訪臺北,一路遇到許多不凡的人,為大家的溫暖、創意、勇氣與決心深深打動,不禁心想:我是在跟眾多絕地武士會面嗎?

我當然在書店看到許多星戰的書,臺灣友人也對星戰如數家珍。無論是路克天行者的種種故事,還是自由的艱難勝利,都在呼喚全球民眾──格外在呼喚臺灣民眾。

如同星戰所展現的,「共和」這種尊重個人權利的自治體制不易建立,亦不易維持,有時簡直難上加難。然而儘管黑暗面的威脅不斷,臺灣人民仍成功建立了欣欣向榮的民主。

願原力與你們同在──永遠同在。

◎《紐約時報》排行榜暢銷書
◎《華盛頓郵報》排行榜第一名
黃丞儀 中研院法律學者 專文導讀
藍祖蔚 資深影評人
馮勃翰 臺大經濟系副教授                 ────齊力推薦
張鐵志 文化政治評論家
臥斧  文字工作者
吳定謙 演員、導演
《時代雜誌》《經濟學人》《泰晤士報》《紐約客》《財富》

各界佳評

娛樂性佳……星際大戰的絕佳入門指南,助讀者從絕地學徒蛻變為絕地武士。
──《時代雜誌》

愉悅好讀……說理中不失樂趣,輕鬆中不失沉穩……讀來順暢無比。這本書的原力很強。
──《經濟學人》

無論你是對星際大戰抱持熱愛,還是想探究法律理論或行為經濟學的入門概念,都不妨讀一讀這本輕鬆迷人的透澈傑作。
──《泰晤士報》

一趟出奇貼切卻深具啟發的銀河之旅……桑思汀舉出許多饒富趣味的例子與觀點。
──《華盛頓郵報》

即將成為大學必讀書目的一本書。
──末日阿宅評論網(Geeks of Doom)

星際大戰打造的「舊日」銀河,一直在夜空中向影迷眨眼睛,而本書是最好的便車指南。
──藍祖蔚,資深影評人

星際大戰可能是電影史上獨一無二的作品──故事描述空想未來,但骨幹源自神話典型,根植於通俗娛樂,但衍生出哲學、宗教、經濟以及政治多方討論。相關論述量多紛雜,若想快速一窺星戰世界堂奧,本書是極佳入門。
──臥斧,文字工作者

能成為經典的作品,背後必有觸動人心的哲理。風靡全球近四十年的星際大戰不僅創造了一個華麗的奇幻世界,更是一部適合用社會科學角度來分析的大作。就讓本書帶領我們跳躍到電影幕後遼闊無邊的超空間吧!
──吳定謙,演員、導演

在這本傑作中,桑思汀藉星際大戰探討身為父母、子女與人類的大哉問,足以讓你改變對自己這趟人生旅程的看法,甚至拿起電話打給老爸。
──華特.艾薩克森,《賈伯斯傳》作者

桑思汀在這本傑作融會了隱形的大猩猩、熱門歌曲、陰謀論與憲法。無論你是熱愛星際大戰電影、喜歡探討世事,或僅僅愛著父親,本書都能帶來啟發與反思。
──鄧肯.華茲,康乃爾大學社會學博士

作者簡介

凱斯.桑思汀|Cass R. Sunstein

美國當代最頂尖的憲法學者、歐巴馬總統最信任的智囊、《星際大戰》的影迷,和三位孩子的父親。

美國被引用次數最多的法律學者,過去近20年來率先將行為經濟學運用在各種議題的探討。曾在芝加哥大學任教27年。2009至2012年間擔任白宮資訊及管制事務辦公室主任。2013至2014年,擔任情報和通訊科技審查小組委員,直接隸屬美國總統,影響力之鉅,被政治脫口秀主持人稱為「美國最危險的人」。目前為哈佛大學法學院教授,也是哈佛「行為經濟學和公共政策計畫」的發起人和負責人。
桑思汀著作豐富,最廣為人知的有與諾貝爾經濟學獎得主理查.塞勒合著的《推出你的影響力》,另外還有《剪裁歧見》《破解團體迷思》《網路會顛覆民主嗎》《選擇不選擇》等書。

譯者簡介
林力敏
輔仁大學翻譯所畢業,曾獲聯合報文學獎、梁實秋文學獎、林榮三文學獎等國內重要文學獎項,曾任聯合報〈繽紛版〉專欄作家。愛騎車兜風,持續探索各類新知、探究文學與人生。譯有《人生問題的有益答案》《康乃爾最經典的思考邏輯課》《房間裡最有智慧的人》《石油與美元》等。

目錄

寫在前面
各界好評
星際大戰系列電影
星際大戰角色簡介
推薦序 
序 言 我們可以從星際大戰學到什麼?
第一章 我是你的父親:喬治盧卡斯的旅程
第二章 一部原先沒有人喜歡的電影,卻變成時代的經典
第三章 成功的祕訣:真的好看、時機剛好或純屬幸運?
第四章 觀看星際大戰的十三種方式
第五章 父與子:唯有牽絆能使你獲得救贖
第六章 選擇的自由:一切取決於你
第七章 挺身反抗:帝國為何陷落,民主如何變成獨裁?
第八章 憲法新部曲:言論自由、性別平等與同性婚姻
第九章 原力與英雄之旅:魔法、信念與直擊心坎的人性
第十章 星戰的神話,我們的故事
致 謝

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