Individual Differences in Conscious Experience

John Benjamins Publishing
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Individual Differences in Conscious Experience is intended for readers with philosophical, psychological, or clinical interests in subjective experience. It addresses some difficult but important issues in the study of consciousness, subconsciousness, and self-consciousness. The book’s fourteen chapters are written by renowned, pioneering researchers who, collectively, have published more than fifty books and more than one thousand journal articles. The editors’ introductory chapter frames the book’s subtext: that mind-brain theories embodying the constraints of individual differences in subjective experience should be given greater credence than nomothetic theories ignoring those constraints. The next five chapters describe research and theory pertaining to individual differences in conscious sensations — specifically, individual differences in pain perception, phantom limbs, gustatory sensations, and mental imagery. Then, two succeeding chapters focus on individual differences in subconsciousness. The final six chapters address individual differences in altered states of self-consciousness — dreams, hypnotic phenomena, and various clinical syndromes.
(Series B)
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John Benjamins Publishing
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Published on
Feb 15, 2000
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Psychology / Cognitive Psychology
Psychology / Neuropsychology
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For most people, prism adaptation is an amusing demonstration, first experienced perhaps in an introductory psychology course. This monograph relates this peculiar phenomenon to the larger context of cognitive science, especially motor control and learning. The first part sketches the background concepts necessary to understand the contribution of prism adaptation to the larger issue of adaptive perceptual-motor performance including:
* a review of the basic concepts of motor control and learning that enable strategic response in the prism adaptation situation;
* the development of a hypothesis about spatial representation and spatial mapping and an introduction to the basic idea of adaptive spatial alignment; and
* a contrasting view of perceptual and motor learning and a review of evidence for the involvement of nonassociative and associative learning in prism adaptation.

Directly concerned with data and theory in prism adaptation, the second part presents:
* an outline of prism adaptation methodology and a list of several empirical conclusions from previous research that constrained development of theoretical framework;
* a theory of strategic perceptual-motor control and learning which enables adaptive performance during prism exposure, but does not directly involve adaptive spatial alignment;
* an extention of the theory to include realignment processes which correct for the spatial misalignment among sensorimotor systems produced by prisms; and
* a demonstration of how traditional issues in prism adaptation may be rephrased in terms of the present theoretical framework.

The last part of this volume reviews the research conducted in developing and testing the present theory of prism adaptation. It summarizes the initial investigations (employing a naturalistic exposure setting), reports some more rigorous tests with an experimentally constrained research paradigm, points out the more general theoretical issues raised by the authors' analysis of prism adaptation, and makes specific suggestions for further research within the prism adaptation paradigm.
Have you ever . . . Invested time in something that, in hindsight, just wasn't worth it? Paid too much in an eBay auction? Continued to do something you knew was bad for you? Sold stocks too late, or too early? Taken credit for success, but blamed failure on external circumstances? Backed the wrong horse?

These are examples of what the author calls cognitive biases, simple errors all of us make in day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to identify them, we can avoid them and make better choices: whether in dealing with personal problems or business negotiations, trying to save money or earn profits, or merely working out what we really want in life—and strategizing the best way to get it.

Already an international bestseller, The Art of Thinking Clearly distills cutting-edge research from behavioral economics, psychology, and neuroscience into a clever, practical guide for anyone who's ever wanted to be wiser and make better decisions. A novelist, thinker, and entrepreneur, Rolf Dobelli deftly shows that in order to lead happier, more prosperous lives, we don't need extra cunning, new ideas, shiny gadgets, or more frantic hyperactivity—all we need is less irrationality.

Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision making—at work, at home, every day. From why you shouldn't accept a free drink to why you should walk out of a movie you don't like, from why it's so hard to predict the future to why you shouldn't watch the news, The Art of Thinking Clearly helps solve the puzzle of human reasoning.

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