Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, Second Edition: Edition 2

CRC Press
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Wood has played a major role throughout human history. Strong and versatile, the earliest humans used wood to make shelters, cook food, construct tools, build boats, and make weapons. Recently, scientists, politicians, and economists have renewed their interest in wood because of its unique properties, aesthetics, availability, abundance, and perhaps most important of all, its renewability. However, wood will not reach its highest use potential until we fully describe it, understand the mechanisms that control its performance properties, and, finally, are able to manipulate those properties to give us the desired performance we seek.

The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites

analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood. They emphasize the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties including modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization.

The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating decades of teaching experience, the editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.

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About the author

Roger M. Rowell is with the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

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Additional Information

Publisher
CRC Press
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Published on
Sep 6, 2012
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Pages
703
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ISBN
9781439853818
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / General
Science / Chemistry / Organic
Technology & Engineering / Materials Science / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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There are two basic types of wood treatments for dimensional stability: (1) those which reduce the rate of water vapor or liquid absorption but do not reduce the extent of swelling to any great degree and (2) those which reduce the extent of swelling and may or may not reduce the rate of water absorption. Terms most often used to describe the effectiveness of the first type of treatment are moisture-excluding effectiveness (MEE), which can be determined in either water or water vapor form, and water repellency (WR), which is a specific liquid test. The term used to describe the effectiveness of the second type of treatment is reduction in swelling (R) or antishrink efficiency (ASE). Most of the type (1) treatments have very low R or ASE values. The R or ASE values can be determined in water vapor tests or single-soak liquid test for water-leachable treatments, or in double-soak liquid tests for nonleachable treatments. In selecting a treatment to achieve product stability to moisture, at least three factors must be considered. The environment of the end product is the most important factor. If the product will come into contact with water, nonleachable--and perhaps even bonded--treatments will be needed. If, however, the product will be subjected to changes in relative humidity in an indoor environment, a leachable or water-repellent treatment might be satisfactory. The degree of dimensional stability must also be considered. If very rigid tolerances are required in a product --as in pattern wood dies--a treatment with very high R or ASE values is needed. If, on the other hand, only a moderate degree of dimensional stability is satisfactory, a less rigorous treatment will suffice.
There are two basic types of wood treatments for dimensional stability: (1) those which reduce the rate of water vapor or liquid absorption but do not reduce the extent of swelling to any great degree and (2) those which reduce the extent of swelling and may or may not reduce the rate of water absorption. Terms most often used to describe the effectiveness of the first type of treatment are moisture-excluding effectiveness (MEE), which can be determined in either water or water vapor form, and water repellency (WR), which is a specific liquid test. The term used to describe the effectiveness of the second type of treatment is reduction in swelling (R) or antishrink efficiency (ASE). Most of the type (1) treatments have very low R or ASE values. The R or ASE values can be determined in water vapor tests or single-soak liquid test for water-leachable treatments, or in double-soak liquid tests for nonleachable treatments. In selecting a treatment to achieve product stability to moisture, at least three factors must be considered. The environment of the end product is the most important factor. If the product will come into contact with water, nonleachable--and perhaps even bonded--treatments will be needed. If, however, the product will be subjected to changes in relative humidity in an indoor environment, a leachable or water-repellent treatment might be satisfactory. The degree of dimensional stability must also be considered. If very rigid tolerances are required in a product --as in pattern wood dies--a treatment with very high R or ASE values is needed. If, on the other hand, only a moderate degree of dimensional stability is satisfactory, a less rigorous treatment will suffice.
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