Uncertainty and Vagueness in Knowledge Based Systems: Numerical Methods

Springer Science & Business Media
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The primary aim of this monograph is to provide a formal framework for the representation and management of uncertainty and vagueness in the field of artificial intelligence. It puts particular emphasis on a thorough analysis of these phenomena and on the development of sound mathematical modeling approaches. Beyond this theoretical basis the scope of the book includes also implementational aspects and a valuation of existing models and systems. The fundamental ambition of this book is to show that vagueness and un certainty can be handled adequately by using measure-theoretic methods. The presentation of applicable knowledge representation formalisms and reasoning algorithms substantiates the claim that efficiency requirements do not necessar ily require renunciation of an uncompromising mathematical modeling. These results are used to evaluate systems based on probabilistic methods as well as on non-standard concepts such as certainty factors, fuzzy sets or belief functions. The book is intended to be self-contained and addresses researchers and practioneers in the field of knowledge based systems. It is in particular suit able as a textbook for graduate-level students in AI, operations research and applied probability. A solid mathematical background is necessary for reading this book. Essential parts of the material have been the subject of courses given by the first author for students of computer science and mathematics held since 1984 at the University in Braunschweig.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
491
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ISBN
9783642767029
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Operations Research
Computers / Intelligence (AI) & Semantics
Computers / Software Development & Engineering / General
Language Arts & Disciplines / Library & Information Science / General
Mathematics / Calculus
Mathematics / Functional Analysis
Mathematics / Probability & Statistics / General
Science / System Theory
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic.

The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provide a mechanism for making semantics-based systems operational. Specifically, network-propagation techniques serve as a mechanism for combining the theoretical coherence of probability theory with modern demands of reasoning-systems technology: modular declarative inputs, conceptually meaningful inferences, and parallel distributed computation. Application areas include diagnosis, forecasting, image interpretation, multi-sensor fusion, decision support systems, plan recognition, planning, speech recognition--in short, almost every task requiring that conclusions be drawn from uncertain clues and incomplete information.


Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems will be of special interest to scholars and researchers in AI, decision theory, statistics, logic, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and the management sciences. Professionals in the areas of knowledge-based systems, operations research, engineering, and statistics will find theoretical and computational tools of immediate practical use. The book can also be used as an excellent text for graduate-level courses in AI, operations research, or applied probability.

In the years following her role as the lead author of the international bestseller, Limits to Growth—the first book to show the consequences of unchecked growth on a finite planet— Donella Meadows remained a pioneer of environmental and social analysis until her untimely death in 2001.

Thinking in Systems, is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. Edited by the Sustainability Institute’s Diana Wright, this essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.

Some of the biggest problems facing the world—war, hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation—are essentially system failures. They cannot be solved by fixing one piece in isolation from the others, because even seemingly minor details have enormous power to undermine the best efforts of too-narrow thinking.

While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was for delving into the science behind global dilemmas. She reminds readers to pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable, to stay humble, and to stay a learner.

In a world growing ever more complicated, crowded, and interdependent, Thinking in Systems helps readers avoid confusion and helplessness, the first step toward finding proactive and effective solutions.

We are glad to present the proceedings of the 5th biennial conference in the Intelligent Data Analysis series. The conference took place in Berlin, Germany, August 28–30, 2003. IDA has by now clearly grown up. Started as a small si- symposium of a larger conference in 1995 in Baden-Baden (Germany) it quickly attractedmoreinterest(bothsubmission-andattendance-wise),andmovedfrom London (1997) to Amsterdam (1999), and two years ago to Lisbon. Submission ratesalongwiththeeverimprovingqualityofpapershaveenabledtheor- nizers to assemble increasingly consistent and high-quality programs. This year we were again overwhelmed by yet another record-breaking submission rate of 180 papers. At the Program Chairs meeting we were – based on roughly 500 reviews – in the lucky position of carefully selecting 17 papers for oral and 42 for poster presentation. Poster presenters were given the opportunity to summarize their papers in 3-minute spotlight presentations. The oral, spotlight and poster presentations were then scheduled in a single-track, 2. 5-day conference program, summarized in this book. In accordance with the goal of IDA, “to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines,” we achieved a nice balance of presentations from the more theoreticalside(bothstatisticsandcomputerscience)aswellasmoreapplicati- oriented areas that illustrate how these techniques can be used in practice. Work presented in these proceedings ranges from theoretical contributions dealing, for example, with data cleaning and compression all the way to papers addressing practical problems in the areas of text classi?cation and sales-rate predictions. A considerable number of papers also center around the currently so popular applications in bioinformatics.
The International Conference on Information Processing and Management of - certainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU, is organized every two years with the aim of bringing together scientists working on methods for the management of uncertainty and aggregation of information in intelligent systems. Since 1986, this conference has been providing a forum for the exchange of ideas between th theoreticians and practitioners working in these areas and related ?elds. The 13 IPMU conference took place in Dortmund, Germany, June 28–July 2, 2010. This volume contains 79 papers selected through a rigorous reviewing process. The contributions re?ect the richness of research on topics within the scope of the conference and represent several important developments, speci?cally focused on theoretical foundations and methods for information processing and management of uncertainty in knowledge-based systems. We were delighted that Melanie Mitchell (Portland State University, USA), Nihkil R. Pal (Indian Statistical Institute), Bernhard Sch ̈ olkopf (Max Planck I- titute for Biological Cybernetics, Tubing ̈ en, Germany) and Wolfgang Wahlster (German Research Center for Arti?cial Intelligence, Saarbruc ̈ ken) accepted our invitations to present keynote lectures. Jim Bezdek received the Kamp ́ede F ́ eriet Award, granted every two years on the occasion of the IPMU conference, in view of his eminent research contributions to the handling of uncertainty in clustering, data analysis and pattern recognition.
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