Wörterbücher / Dictionaries / Dictionnaires. 2. Teilband

Walter de Gruyter
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Since about 4000 years ago, lexicography has been a component of all cultures in which script was known. The path of its development goes from word lists on clay tablets to computer stored data banks. In our day, lexicography has a scientific and a non-scientific form. The former form comprises works on various sources of information and reference that pursue various important purposes, such as: help in the acquisition of the mother tongue and of foreign languages; in various types of acquisition of scientific and technical knowledge; in translation; and in cultural exchange and in ideological developments, either within one`s own or in a foreign linguistic community. The social importance of lexicography is occasionally taken cognizance of even in international politics.

The last two decades have witnessed an upsurge in interest in lexicography. On the one hand, international contacts are becoming more intimate in terms both of culture and economy; on the other hand and as far as scientific considerations go, the lexicon is being studied more within the framework of various theories, problems of the vocabulary are being studied within the area of foreign language teaching, and the application of the computer in lexicography and in other fields has brought new problems, together with many advantages. The increase in interest in the lexicon has been accompanied by the emergence of the study of dictionaries as a scientific discipline. This discipline studies the tools of reference as to their forms, structures, the way they are used, their history, and their criticism; ultimately, it is the study of those reference tools in relation to the culture in which they are embedded.

The Encyclopedia deals with lexicography and with the study of dictionaries; its three volumes cover the whole area in a great wealth of detail but in a coherent way: authors have written 349 articles in English, French, and German. They are distributed in 38 chapters.

The Encyclopedia pursues the following goals:

  • to describe the lexicography of all the language families, with particular attention given to the European languages and their transplanted varieties,
  • to develop a typology of the lexicographic reference books, above all the linguistic dictionaries, within the various cultures and societies,
  • to provide the basis for the study of the lexicon within a general theory of lexicography in relation to the study of various functions of dictionaries in individual cultures and in relation to the theories of the lexicon in various linguistic schools of thought,
  • to develop the methodology of lexicographic work in all its phases, beginning with the appointments of a lexicographic office and ending with the application of the computer,
  • to pinpoint areas in greatest need of improvement both in the lexicographic practice of individual territories and in the theory of lexicography,
  • to offer a rich bibliography both of dictionaries and of secondary literature,
  • to foster the development of lexicography into a discipline that while pursuing practical goals will be suitable for being taught and learned in a scientific way.
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Walter de Gruyter
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Published on
Jan 1, 1990
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Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / General
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative
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Julia Korthus
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2004 im Fachbereich Amerikanistik - Literatur, Note: 2,0, Universität Mannheim, 6 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Der weltberühmte Roman "The Great Gatsby" wurde von Francis Scott Fitzgerald geschrieben und ist 1925 erschienen. Er wird gemeinhin als Fitzgeralds Meisterwerk bezeichnet, obwohl er sich nach seiner Veröffentlichung zunächst nur mäßig verkaufte. In dem Roman werden die Ereignisse eines Sommers im Leben von Nick Carraway erzählt, einem jungen Mann aus dem amerikanischen Mittleren Westen, der nach seinem Umzug an die Ostküste die Bekanntschaft des schwerreichen Jay Gatsby macht und in dessen glamouröse Welt hineingezogen wird. Es gibt zahlreiche Werke, die sich mit verschiedensten Aspekten dieses Romans beschäftigen. Einige behandeln die Frage, wie stark der Einfluss von Fitzgeralds eigenem Leben auf den Roman war; andere versuchen, die verschiedenen Leitmotive des Romans zu interpretieren und wieder andere beschäftigen sich mit der Frage, inwieweit die Handlung des Romans auch in heutigen Zeiten noch aktuell ist. Ein Aspekt wird in vielen dieser Arbeiten erwähnt – der "American dream". Ich möchte in dieser Hausarbeit zeigen, wie das Phänomen des "American dream" in The Great Gatsby dargestellt wird und was das Besondere am persönlichen "American dream" der Hauptfigur Jay Gatsby ist. Zunächst werde ich einen kurzen Abriss der Biografie des Autors F. S. Fitzgerald geben und mich dann mit der Figur Jay Gatsby befassen. Danach werde ich das Konzept des "American dream" vorstellen und im Anschluss daran die Besonderheit des "Gatsby-schen" Traums erläutern. Ich möchte aufzeigen, dass der Leser des Romans gerade durch Gatsbys unerschütterlichen Glauben an seinen Traum und durch seine Fähigkeit, zu hoffen, dazu gebracht wird, Sympathie mit Gatsby zu empfinden und sein Scheitern (und das seines Traums) zu bedauern.
Mandy Balzer
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich Englisch - Literatur, Werke, Note: 2,0, Universität Potsdam (Anglistik & Amerikanistik), Veranstaltung: Shakespeare’s Later Comedies & Problem Plays , Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In 1492, Christopher Columbus first landed on the American continent. This event marks the beginning of its conquest by the Europeans. Some people celebrated the sailor as a hero; others assessed him as a power-hungry and dispiteous conqueror. Many indigenous people were oppressed, enslaved and eradicated by the following European settlers (Karras and McNeill 7). By the time William Shakespeare wrote The Tempest in 1611, the English were accustomed to unimaginable stories about voyages abroad. Therefore, colonisation and exploration of the unknown islands continued to be frequent topics of conversation, heated-up by the many returning travellers. One of these stories circulated around the ‘Sea Adventure’, a flagship carrying Admiral George Somers and his crew that disappeared and was presumed lost at sea. Unbelievably, almost a full year later in the end of May, 1610, two pinnaces appeared at Jamestown carrying the staff and passengers from the ‘Sea Adventure’. The ship had – by force of a tempest – crashed on the island of Bermuda, which had – in contrast to its reputation as dangerous ‘Isle of Devils’ – a plenty of food and shelter. The stranded built their new sailing ships and completed their voyage to Jamestown (Müller, 343). Seeing the similarities between this incident and the rough plot of Shakespeare’s The Tempest, one could assume that the author got inspired by these stories to write a play, which broaches the issue of the conquest of the New World. In dealing with the recurrent motif of the master-servant relationship, I will prove that The Tempest can be perceived as a play about colonialism and subjugation. After an elaborate part about the motif, I will detail the traits of the main figures of The Tempest, which allegorize the people of the colonial era. Still, it’s not supposed to be a full characterisation and I will only name some facts due to the restricted number of pages, but it is much-needed to understand the individual relationships.
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