The Genetic Markers of Human Immunoglobulins

Springer Science & Business Media
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It has long been known that every individual has a large number of antibodies of different specificities. Antibodies are gammaglobulins, and protein structure in cells is genetically determined. The extreme multiplicity of structure of the combining sites of antibodies relative to the degree of multiplicity generated by ordinary genetic mechanisms is a fascinating problem of bio-medical importance. The functional heterogeneity of reactions mediated by immunoglobulins-is remarkable, ranging from protection against life-threatening toxins and microbes to the production of laryngeal edema leading to suffocation and death from anaphylaxis. An approach to the understanding of immunoglobulin polymorphism based upon "a knowledge of genetic markers of immunoglobulin structure is not biased by the question of whether or not this polymorphism is related to combining site diversity. Though several recent reviews of the multifacetted problems related to immuno globulins are available, it was decided to publish this survey in the belief that know ledge of the genetic markers of immunoglobulins prqvides such information about immunoglobulin differentiation and its control as cannot be obtained from other sources. Several of the human genetic im~unoglobulin markers are well understood at the molecular level. The Gm system may serv~ as a model for other immuno genetic systems. The published data on the human immunoglobulin factors are widely scattered in journals of different perspectives. There is a need for a systematic presentation of these data and for their critical evaluation.
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Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Medical / Immunology
Science / Life Sciences / Biochemistry
Science / Life Sciences / Cell Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
Science / Life Sciences / Molecular Biology
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In recent years bacteriocins, especially colicins, have become widely known to molecular biologists as proteins with peculiar ways of killing bacteria. These same bacteriocins have been known for a long time to bacteriology for their unusual activity spectra and enormous variety. In this monograph I have attempted to bring together our detailed knowledge of those few bacteriocins which have already re ceived attention from molecular biologists, and our less detailed hut extensive knowledge of the variety of bacteriocins which exist. The field has been reviewed in whole or in part, by several authors [FREDERICQ, 1957, 1964, 1965 (2); IVANOVICS, 1962; HAMON, 1965; REEVES, 1965 (2)]. These reviews have been very useful to the author, and readers will find further references in them, and sometimes alternative viewpoints. We have already referred to bacteriocins as proteins, and in doing so have ex cluded many more complex antibacterial agents which resemble bacteriophages or their tails. In the author's view, these phage-like particles are probably not bacterio cins, but many authors include them within the definition; the more restrictive de finition used here has meant omitting discussion of some excellent studies on what the present author would term defective bacteriophages. In the first chapter we look at the discovery of bacteriocins and an outline of their classification. With this background we can discuss in Chapters 2 to 6 the chemistry, genetics and mode of action of the more intensively studied bacteriocins.
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