In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants: Volume 5 — Oil, Ornamental and Miscellaneous Plants

Springer Science & Business Media
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Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Apr 17, 2013
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Pages
258
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ISBN
9789401718561
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Ramdane Dris
Today, in a world with abundant food, more than 700 million people are chro- cally undernourished. Over the next 20 years, the world’s population will probably double. The global food supply would need to double or to triple for the larger population to be fed adequately. Agriculture is closely linked to environmental quality in a variety of ways, and the challenge of our generation is how to feed a growing planet while maintaining the integrity of our ecological life-support system. The responsibility of governments for ensuring food security will grow proportionately with the growth of populations, and governments bear a special responsibility for promoting agricultural inputs. Agriculture in the 21st century, will certainly focus increasingly on adapting modern technologies to local farming systems, needs and environments. Worldwide climatic changes have been raising concerns about potential changes to crop yields and production systems. Such concerns include the ability to acc- modate these uncertain effects in order to ensure an adequate food supply for an increasing population. What can be done concretely to use agriculture to address some of the fundamental issues of today’s world? We must recognize that agric- ture is part of the solution and not just a problem. Agricultural development is a key to social stability and equity in many parts of the world. It can help to al- viate the subtle and unspoken fears of modernization and the space of change if innovation is handled transparently.
Ramdane Dris
M. R. Ahuja
This book provides complete, comprehensive, and broad subject-based reviews for students, teachers, researchers, policymakers, conservationists, and NGOs interested in the biodiversity and conservation of woody plants.

Forests cover approximately 31 percent of the world’s total landmass; 93 percent is natural forest and only 7 percent consists of planted trees. Forest decline is progressing at an alarming rate worldwide. In addition to human activities (logging, deforestation, and exploiting forest lands for agriculture and industrial use), a number of other factors – including pests and diseases, drought, soil acidity, radiation, and ozone – are cumulatively contributing to global forest decline.

The present situation forces us to focus on forest conservation strategies for the present and future. Gene conservation and maintaining genetic diversity in forest ecosystems are crucial to the preservation of forest genetic resources. This calls for integrated action to implement both the in situ (on site) preservation of forest stands and ex situ (distant from the original site) strategies for the conservation of woody plants’ genetic resources. Selected priority areas include: 1) assessing patterns of genetic diversity and threats, 2) understanding the biological processes regulating genetic diversity, 3) assessing the impact of human activities and climate change on genetic diversity, and 5) finding methods for prioritizing species and populations for the conservation of forest trees genetic resources.

All chapters were written by leading scientists in their respective fields, which include: woody plant diversity, ecology and evolution; assessment of genetic diversity in forest tree populations; conservation planning under climate change; and in situ and ex situ strategies, including biotechnological approaches, for the conservation of woody plants genetic resources.

S. Mohan Jain
Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have al lowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.
S. Mohan Jain
Since the beginning of agricultural production, there has been a continuous effort to grow more and better quality food to feed ever increasing popula tions. Both improved cultural practices and improved crop plants have allowed us to divert more human resources to non-agricultural activities while still increasing agricultural production. Malthusian population predictions continue to alarm agricultural researchers, especially plant breeders, to seek new technologies that will continue to allow us to produce more and better food by fewer people on less land. Both improvement of existing cultivars and development of new high-yielding cultivars are common goals for breeders of all crops. In vitro haploid production is among the new technologies that show great promise toward the goal of increasing crop yields by making similar germplasm available for many crops that was used to implement one of the greatest plant breeding success stories of this century, i. e. , the development of hybrid maize by crosses of inbred lines. One of the main applications of anther culture has been to produce diploid homozygous pure lines in a single generation, thus saving many generations of backcrossing to reach homozygosity by traditional means or in crops where self-pollination is not possible. Because doubled haploids are equivalent to inbred lines, their value has been appreciated by plant breeders for decades. The search for natural haploids and methods to induce them has been ongoing since the beginning of the 20th century.
S.Mohan Jain
Micropropagation has become a reliable and routine approach for large-scale rapid plant multiplication, which is based on plant cell, tissue and organ culture on well defined tissue culture media under aseptic conditions. A lot of research efforts are being made to develop and refine micropropagation methods and culture media for large-scale plant multiplication of several number of plant species. However, many forest and fruit tree species still remain recalcitrant to in vitro culture and require highly specific culture conditions for plant growth and development. The recent challenges on plant cell cycle regulation and the presented potential molecular mechanisms of recalcitrance are providing excellent background for understanding on totipotency and what is more development of micropropagation protocols. For large-scale in vitro plant production the important attributes are the quality, cost effectiveness, maintenance of genetic fidelity, and long-term storage. The need for appropriate in vitro plant regeneration methods for woody plants, including both forest and fruit trees, is still overwhelming in order to overcome problems facing micropropagation such as somaclonal variation, recalcitrant rooting, hyperhydricity, polyphenols, loss of material during hardening and quality of plant material. Moreover, micropropagation may be utilized, in basic research, in production of virus-free planting material, cryopreservation of endangered and elite woody species, applications in tree breeding and reforestation.
M. R. Ahuja
This book provides complete, comprehensive, and broad subject-based reviews for students, teachers, researchers, policymakers, conservationists, and NGOs interested in the biodiversity and conservation of woody plants.

Forests cover approximately 31 percent of the world’s total landmass; 93 percent is natural forest and only 7 percent consists of planted trees. Forest decline is progressing at an alarming rate worldwide. In addition to human activities (logging, deforestation, and exploiting forest lands for agriculture and industrial use), a number of other factors – including pests and diseases, drought, soil acidity, radiation, and ozone – are cumulatively contributing to global forest decline.

The present situation forces us to focus on forest conservation strategies for the present and future. Gene conservation and maintaining genetic diversity in forest ecosystems are crucial to the preservation of forest genetic resources. This calls for integrated action to implement both the in situ (on site) preservation of forest stands and ex situ (distant from the original site) strategies for the conservation of woody plants’ genetic resources. Selected priority areas include: 1) assessing patterns of genetic diversity and threats, 2) understanding the biological processes regulating genetic diversity, 3) assessing the impact of human activities and climate change on genetic diversity, and 5) finding methods for prioritizing species and populations for the conservation of forest trees genetic resources.

All chapters were written by leading scientists in their respective fields, which include: woody plant diversity, ecology and evolution; assessment of genetic diversity in forest tree populations; conservation planning under climate change; and in situ and ex situ strategies, including biotechnological approaches, for the conservation of woody plants genetic resources.

G.S. Singhal
Photobiology is an important area of biological research since a very large number of living processes are either dependent on or governed by light that we receive from the Sun. Among various subjects, photosynthesis is one of the most important, and thus a popular topic in both molecular and organismic biology, and one which has made a considerable impact throughout the world since almost all life on Earth depends upon it as a source of food, fuel and oxygen. However, for growth of plants, light is equally essential, and research on photomorphogenesis has revealed exciting new developments with the application of newer molecular biological approaches. The present book brings together and integrates various aspects of photosynthesis, biology of pigments, light regulation of chloroplast development, nuclear and chloroplast gene expression, light signal transduction, other photomorphogenetic processes and some photoecological aspects under one cover. The chapters cover biochemical and molecular discussions of most of the above topics in a comprehensive manner and include a wide range of `hot topics' that are currently under investigation in the field of photobiology of cyanobacteria, algae and plants.
The authors of this book are selected international authorities in their fields from USA, Europe, Australia and Asia. The book is designed primarily to be used as a text book by graduates and post-graduates. It is, however, also intended to be a resource book for new researchers in plant photobiology. Several introductory chapters are designed as suitable reading for undergraduate courses in integrative and molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics.
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