Volcanic Ash: Hazard Observation

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Volcanic Ash: Hazard Observation

presents an introduction followed by four sections, each on a separate topic and each containing chapters from an internationally renowned pool of authors. The introduction provides a volcanological context for ash generation that sets the stage for the development and interpretation of techniques presented in subsequent sections.

The book begins with an examination of the methods to characterize ash deposits on the ground, as ash deposits on the ground have generally experienced some atmospheric transport. This section will also cover basic information on ash morphology, density, and refractive index, all parameters required to understand and analyze assumptions made for both in situ measurements and remote sensing ash inversion techniques. Sections two, three, and four focus on methods for observing volcanic ash in the atmosphere using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments respectively.

Throughout the book, the editors showcase not only the interdisciplinary nature of the volcanic ash problem, but also the challenges and rewards of interdisciplinary endeavors. Additionally, by bringing together a broad perspective on volcanic ash studies, the book not only ties together ground-, air-, academic, and applied approaches to the volcanic ash problem, but also engages with other scientific communities interested in particulate transport.

  • Includes recent case studies highlighting the impact of volcanic ash, making methods used for observation more accessible to the reader
  • Contains advances in volcanic ash observation that can be used in other remote sensing applications
  • Presents a cross-disciplinary approach that includes not only methods of tracking and measuring ash in the atmosphere, but also of the fundamental science that supports methodological application and interpretation
  • Edited by an internationally recognized team with a range of expertise within the field of volcanic ash
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About the author

Shona Mackie has a PhD from the University of Edinburgh, where she worked on a project developing a new method for interpreting cloud data from satellite imagery for assimilation into weather forecast models. After a period working on operational wind energy forecasting, she returned to academic research to work on the challenges of detecting volcanic ash in satellite data, and to look at methods for forecasting its evolution and transport. Shona has presented her work at international conferences and published in it in peer-reviewed journals and is an associate fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society and a former fellow of the American Meteorological Society. She convened a successful session at EGU 2014 focused on volcanic ash and is an editor of the special issue of the Annals of Geophysics that followed from that session.

Kathy Cashman studied for a BA degree in Geology and Biology at Middlebury College, Vermont, USA (1976), for an MSci (1st class Hons) at Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand) and for a PhD in Earth Sciences at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, USA (1986). Her PhD project concerned applying theories of crystal size distributions to volcanic systems, and was supervised by Professor Bruce Marsh. She was an Assistant Professor at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA (1986-1991), and then an Associate (1991-1997) and Full (1997-present) at the University of Oregon. Kathy came to Bristol in 2011 on a three year Research Professorship funded by the AXA insurance company. In December 2013 she was offered an AXA Endowed Chair at Bristol. Kathy was Head of the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon (2007-10) and President of the Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrology (VGP) section of the American Geophysical Union (AGU; 2002-2004). In 2003 she was made a Distinguished Professor of the College of Arts and Sciences (Oregon), and in 2007 Kathy was made a Philip H. Knight Distinguished Professor of Natural Science (Oregon). Kathy received the AGU VGP Bowen Award in 2006, was elected a Fellow of the AGU in 2009, of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2012 and a member of the Academia Europaea in 2014. Kathy currently holds a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award.

Hugo Ricketts is currently employed as a Research Scientist at the University of Manchester and funded by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). He completed his MPhys in Physics and Meteorology at the University of Reading in 2004 and subsequently gained a PhD in Atmospheric Science at the University of Manchester, investigating the use of ozone lidars in the atmospheric boundary layer. He now specialises in lidar science; more specifically, the development of new lidar techniques and the use of existing lidar systems to investigate air pollution transport. During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010 he became involved in detecting volcanic ash using lidar and reporting any sighted ash to VAAC. Together with colleagues, new techniques were developed to detect volcanic ash using different lidar systems.

Dr. Alison Rust has been at the University of Bristol since 2006 as a Royal Society University Research Fellow and then a Reader in Physical Volcanology. She studies the dynamics of volcanic processes using a combination of laboratory experiments, fluid mechanics, and detailed studies of ash and other products of volcanic eruptions.

Matthew Watson has a BSc in Chemistry and an MSc in Physics from the University of Leicester. He completed his PhD in remote sensing of tropospheric volcanic plumes at the University of Cambridge in 2000. Matthew completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Michigan Tech working on volcanic ash clouds before moving to Bristol in 2004. He is currently a Reader at the Universit yof Bristol, and works on remote quantification of volcanic emissions used for physical volcanology and environmental and climatological applications.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
May 24, 2016
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Pages
300
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ISBN
9780081004241
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Earth Sciences / Meteorology & Climatology
Science / Earth Sciences / Seismology & Volcanism
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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At the dawn of the twentieth century, a great confidence suffused America. Isaac Cline was one of the era's new men, a scientist who believed he knew all there was to know about the motion of clouds and the behavior of storms. The idea that a hurricane could damage the city of Galveston, Texas, where he was based, was to him preposterous, "an absurd delusion." It was 1900, a year when America felt bigger and stronger than ever before. Nothing in nature could hobble the gleaming city of Galveston, then a magical place that seemed destined to become the New York of the Gulf.

That August, a strange, prolonged heat wave gripped the nation and killed scores of people in New York and Chicago. Odd things seemed to happen everywhere: A plague of crickets engulfed Waco. The Bering Glacier began to shrink. Rain fell on Galveston with greater intensity than anyone could remember. Far away, in Africa, immense thunderstorms blossomed over the city of Dakar, and great currents of wind converged. A wave of atmospheric turbulence slipped from the coast of western Africa. Most such waves faded quickly. This one did not.

In Cuba, America's overconfidence was made all too obvious by the Weather Bureau's obsession with controlling hurricane forecasts, even though Cuba's indigenous weathermen had pioneered hurricane science. As the bureau's forecasters assured the nation that all was calm in the Caribbean, Cuba's own weathermen fretted about ominous signs in the sky. A curious stillness gripped Antigua. Only a few unlucky sea captains discovered that the storm had achieved an intensity no man alive had ever experienced.

In Galveston, reassured by Cline's belief that no hurricane could seriously damage the city, there was celebration. Children played in the rising water. Hundreds of people gathered at the beach to marvel at the fantastically tall waves and gorgeous pink sky, until the surf began ripping the city's beloved beachfront apart. Within the next few hours Galveston would endure a hurricane that to this day remains the nation's deadliest natural disaster. In Galveston alone at least 6,000 people, possibly as many as 10,000, would lose their lives, a number far greater than the combined death toll of the Johnstown Flood and 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.

And Isaac Cline would experience his own unbearable loss.

Meticulously researched and vividly written, Isaac's Storm is based on Cline's own letters, telegrams, and reports, the testimony of scores of survivors, and our latest understanding of the hows and whys of great storms. Ultimately, however, it is the story of what can happen when human arrogance meets nature's last great uncontrollable force. As such, Isaac's Storm carries a warning for our time.


From the Hardcover edition.
Rain is elemental, mysterious, precious, destructive.
 
It is the subject of countless poems and paintings; the top of the weather report; the source of the world's water. Yet this is the first book to tell the story of rain.

Cynthia Barnett's Rain begins four billion years ago with the torrents that filled the oceans, and builds to the storms of climate change. It weaves together science—the true shape of a raindrop, the mysteries of frog and fish rains—with the human story of our ambition to control rain, from ancient rain dances to the 2,203 miles of levees that attempt to straitjacket the Mississippi River. It offers a glimpse of our "founding forecaster," Thomas Jefferson, who measured every drizzle long before modern meteorology. Two centuries later, rainy skies would help inspire Morrissey’s mopes and Kurt Cobain’s grunge. Rain is also a travelogue, taking readers to Scotland to tell the surprising story of the mackintosh raincoat, and to India, where villagers extract the scent of rain from the monsoon-drenched earth and turn it into perfume.

Now, after thousands of years spent praying for rain or worshiping it; burning witches at the stake to stop rain or sacrificing small children to bring it; mocking rain with irrigated agriculture and cities built in floodplains; even trying to blast rain out of the sky with mortars meant for war, humanity has finally managed to change the rain. Only not in ways we intended. As climate change upends rainfall patterns and unleashes increasingly severe storms and drought, Barnett shows rain to be a unifying force in a fractured world. Too much and not nearly enough, rain is a conversation we share, and this is a book for everyone who has ever experienced it.
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