Jan Mayen Island in Scientific Focus

Nato Science Series: IV

Book 45
Springer Science & Business Media
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Jan Mayen is a volcanic island surrounded by the deep Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas. There, atmospheric and oceanic processes unleash potential energy that forces very dynamic interactions between sea and air. This unique geophysical focal point generates climatic variability in northern Europe, and supports marine biological production that sustains the yield of large living resources. The marine populations are clearly fluctuating with variations in climate, and raises questions about effects of man-made climate change. Since the last Ice Age the sinking of Greenland Sea Deep-Water has been a substantial driving force for the Global Thermo-Haline Circulation which feeds warm Atlantic water into the Nordic Seas. Global warming may interact with the deep-water formation and force feedback mechanisms that express themselves beyond imagination. The book addresses such problems to raise an interest for doing research on the island and in its waters. The potentials for doing that increases when the island's Loran-C station closes down in 2005. The book recommends how the international scientific community may gain access to this really challenging arena for local, regional and Global research. It is a blueprint for the logistics required for science to succeed in a very remote and physically demanding place on Earth.
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Dedication. Preface. Acknowledgments. Clifford Geometric Algebras in Multilinear Algebra and Non-Euclidean Geometries.- Geometric algebra Projective Geometries; Affine and other geometries; Affine Geometry of pseudo-euclidean space; Conformal Geometry and the Horosphere; References. Content-Based Information Retrieval by Group Theoretical Methods.- Introduction; Motivating Examples; General Concept; Fault Tolerance.- Applications, Prototypes, and Test Results; Related Work and Future Research; References.- Four Problems in Radar.-Introduction; Radar Fundamentals; Radar Waveforms; Signal Processing; Space-Time Adaptive Processing; Four Problems in Radar; Conclusions. Introduction to Generalized Classical and Quantum Signal and System Theories on Groups and Hypergroups.-Generalized classical signal/system theory on hypergroups; Generalized quantum signal/system theory on hypergroups; Conclusion; References. Lie Groups and Lie Algebras in Robotics.- Introduction -- Rigid Body Motions; Lie Groups; Finite Screw Motions; Mechanical Joints; Invisible Motion and Gripping; Forward Kinematics; Lie Algebra; The Adjoint Representation; The Exponential Map Derivatives of Exponentials; Jacobians; Concluding Remarks; References. Quantum/Classical Interface: a Geometric Approach from the Classical Side.- Introduction Paravector Space as Spacetime; Eigenspinors; Spin; Dirac Equation; Bell's Theorem; Qubits and Entanglement; Conclusions; References. PONS, Reed-Muller Codes, and Group Algebras.- Introduction; Analytic Theory of One-Dimensional PONS (Welti); Shapiro Sequences, Reed-Muller Codes, and Functional Equations; Group Algebras; Reformulation of Classical PONS; Group Algebra of Classical PONS; GroupAlgebra Convolution; Splitting Sequences; Historical Appendix on PONS; References. Clifford Algebras as a Unified Language.- Introduction; Clifford algebras as models of physical spaces; Clifford Algebras as Models of Perceptual Multicolor Spaces; Hypercomplex-Valued invariants of nD multicolor images; Conclusions; Acknowledgments; References. Recent Progress and Applications in Group FFTs.-Introduction; Finite group FFTs; FFTs for compact groups; Noncompact groups; References. Group Filters and Image Processing.- Introduction: Classical Digital Signal Processing; Abelian Group DSP; Nonabelian Groups; Examples; Group Transforms; Group Filters; Line-like Images; Acknowledgments; References. A Geometric Algebra Approach to Some Problems of Robot Vision.- Introduction; Local Analysis of Multi-dimensional Signals; Knowledge Based Neural Computing; Acknowledgments; References. Group Theory in Radar and Signal Processing.- Introduction; How a Radar Works; Representations; Representations and Radar; Ambiguity Functions; The Wide Band Case; References. Geometry of Paravector Space with Applications to Relativistic Physics.- Clifford Algebras in Physics; Paravector Space as Spacetime; Interpretation; Eigenspinors; Maxwell's Equation; Conclusions; References. A Unified Approach to Fourier-Clifford-Prometheus Transforms- Introduction; New construction of classical and multiparametric Prometheus transforms; PONS associated with Abelian groups; Fast Fourier-Prometheus Transforms; Conclusions; Acknowledgments; References. Fast Color Wavelet Transforms.- Introduction; Color images; Color Wavelet-Haar-Prometheus transforms; Edge detection and compression of color images; Conclusion; Acknowledgments; References. Selected Problems; Various Authors.- Transformations of Euclidean Space and Clifford Geometric; Algebra; References; On the Distribution of Kloosterman Sums on Polynomials over Quaternions; References; Harmonic Sliding Analysis Problems; References; Spectral Analysis under Conditions of Uncertainty; A Canonical Basis for Maximal Tori of the Reductive Centrizer of a Nilpotent Element; References; 6 The Quantum Chaos Conjecture References; Four Problems in Radar; Topic Index; Author Index

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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Nov 13, 2013
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Pages
364
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ISBN
9781402029578
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Architecture / Buildings / Public, Commercial & Industrial
Architecture / Design, Drafting, Drawing & Presentation
Law / Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice
Law / Constitutional
Science / Earth Sciences / General
Science / Environmental Science
Science / Life Sciences / General
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Animals are a major link between the water column (pelagic) and the bottom (benthic) habitats in most shallow systems. This coupling is dominated by active processes such as suspension-feeding in which the organism actively uses energy to pump water that is then filtered to remove suspended particles that are consumed while undigested remains are deposited on the bottom. As a result of this feeding on and metabolism of particles, the animals excrete dissolved inorganic and organic waste back into the water column, and thus, become major components in the cycling and feedback of essential elements. With relatively high weight specific filtration rates of 1— 10 liters/hour/gram dry tissue and a propensity to form large aggregated populations (beds, reefs, schools and swarms), these organisms can play an important role in regulating water column processes

Although estuarine bivalve molluscs such as oysters and mussels dominate the suspension-feeder literature, other groups including plankton and nekton that are found in estuarine as well as other aquatic systems are also potentially important removers of suspended particles. Thus, a significant part of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on suspension-feeders as controllers of plankton abundance, biomass and diversity, system metabolism, nutrient cycling and scale dependency.

Systems dominated by suspension-feeders are typically impacted by human activities including recreation, aquaculture, human and industrial pollution, and bilge water from shipping. Suspension-feeders are often impacted by fisheries and over-exploitation. These impacts commonly result in changes in ecosystem structure either through the food chain concentration of harmful substances or diseases, the introduction of alien species of suspension-feeders, or the instability of suspension-feeders systems through species displacement or phase shifts in the dominance between different suspension-feeding components such as nekton or zooplankton. These issues were addressed near the close of the workshop along with conclusions and syntheses developed by the working groups.

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